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^ioA^PoJi tuw-i^-A-'l^ • '^'^^ 










[A New and Enluged Edition of 


Xfm Prft*nttm. 

3EttI)iictitit (Sintraliirations. 









In T»»o Volumon, wiUi Hup* nnd Plana. 


Combined and Eolaiecd.] 







With a PolitioO'Ethnograpliioal Map. 

[A New Edition of 


[In Pre^araiioH 






In T-wo Volumes, "with Maps and Plans. 

[/« ike Prtss 









With a Map of <Tho North* in the Sixth Century A.C. 

[A New and Enlarged Edition of 

[In PrtparoH^n. 








extracts from reviews of the first edition. 

' TUs book is an honesi piece of work. Boih authors have resolved to do thirir 
best, and the result is likely to add lo (he nuinber of those penoui who lake a 
lively interest iu Greece. . . . Great judgment and (aste are sbown in the seleclioa 
of the poeuis, and a very good idea can te formed from them of the varied themes, 
spirit, and character of Greek popular poetiy. Many of them have never been 
tranilaled before. . . . Mr. Glennie . . . shows wide research. Bad gieal eamesl- 
nejs and power of thought He sketches the history of modem l3reek,aDdeiplalns 
Ihe nature of the dialects in which the poems are written. He also fumisfaes b vivid 
picture of the scenes In which they were composed, aad. in urging that the send- 
ments are to a tai^ extent pagan, he draws attention to many marked cbaraclerlstici 
of the ballads. . . . We recommend the book beaitily to ail who wish to form 
some idea of the popular poetry of Greece. ' 


' Miss GartKii's translatloDS are spirited, rhythmical, and well sustained.' 

Satusdat Review. 
' Mr. Glennie points oat with truth that the animistic attlttide of mind (a> we 
may call it " for short") endures, and in tbe ballads all things are equally con- 
ceived of as animated and personal. . . , A full and typical let of selections, of 
great Interest (o all students of popular ballads. . . . Tne choice of pieces which 
be directed is deserving of praise.' 

LiTBRABT World. 
' It is hard to realise that this poem ("Tbanasd Vaglila"), at once so vivid and 
so dignified, is a InnslatioD,' 

St. James's Oazbtte. 

'Mr. Glennie's elaboTste Introductory essay on the "Survival of Paganism" Is 

teamed and acute, with much useful and [dcturesque infonsalion od Greek 

icfMigTapby, and Iblly conclusive as to the writer's main proposllion. . . . Miss 

Gamelts translations are in general excelleiit, teise, simple, and energetic' 

MoKNiNG Post. 

' Preceded by an able prefoce, with literal and metrical translations by Lucy 

U. J. Ganwtl, this book of " Folk-Songs," edited by John S. Stuart Glonuie, M.A., 

and to which he has added a compnlieasive Historical Introduction, offers unusual 

Lnnioct wlilcb tMS enabled her 10 sdie upon the appropriate I . . . „ . 

the various classes of compositions comprehended In her volume, and a command 
of pore idiomatic English reSectlug the artless simplicity of Ihe origlnaL . .. Miss 
Gajnetl'i translation reflects every mood' tn turn with equal felidly, and skilfully 
oonbioei Utenrj fonn with peiieci fidelity 10 the original ' 

Manchester EIxaminer. 
;h win be welcomed wllh genuina inlereil by all EWdents 
nt «( peculiar «a]ae as repiesentliig with mitror- 
■ '~5 and habits of the people amoDg 

with faithful 

■ Thii is a volumo which 
of Iblk-lore. These Gniek 
like accuiacjr the Ihoiq-hls. 
whom ihey had ^eir Innli. . . . The songs . 
"dooloiing" ot improving process; they have boon rendered 
fideliiy, line lor line, and wiih careful reproduction of the peodiaiilies ui mcnc niuu 
ifaylhm. . . . Mr. SluajlGlentiiepre^ices thesoDgswithan Historicallatroductiim 
. . . which ia elabomle, schotarlji, and full of curious informatian.' 
North Bhitisk Daii.y Mail. 

' Id his HiElorical lolioduclioa Mr. Stuart Gleniue points out with considerable 
learnifiR how mueh of the ancitni pagan or classic notion* srill survive in the 
Grtek folk-songs of lo-dar. ... He cotreclly assumes and Incisively shows that it 
is not the first centunr of our era. but the sixth century B.C,, which uiily divides the 
AoclcDl from the Modem Civilioilioni. . . . Miss Gamell . . . has fulfilled her 
own task in a roost meritorious manner. ... All the more have we lo acknowledee 
the translator's socce^ul effort to bring the subject nearer la us by subtle 
reminiscences of Westeio popular minsireliy. without in the least departiDe ftam 
the text of the original. To anyone wishing to gel a good glimpse of Greek folk- 
feeling beyond the confines of the HellEnic kingdom, this book may, ttterefote, bo 
heartily recommended.' 


'The selection of "Greek Folk-SouES" tiow offered to the public, and uanslated 
and arranged with admirable skill and care by Miss Lucy M. J, C^melt, with the 
aid and under the sup^^rlnlcndcnce of Mr. Stuart Glennie, is ofa remarkably vailed 
and comprehensive chaiBcler, embracing as it does almost every phase of Greek 
social and domestic life. As lo Mr. Gteunie's Histoncal Introduction, there is 
much in it which isveryjinteicsting. . . . Mr.Glennlehashlsown ibeoryol History 
which he is anxious to urge upon all occasions. . . . But though there is much 
In this Inuoduction which we think might have been spared, we must thank Mr. 
Glennie for his graphic descriptions of the scenes in and arouiul which these songs 
took (heir rise.' 


' Miss Gamelt is to be congmlulalcd on her stioeessful treatment of the beautifiil 
songs she has collected in thi; volume . . . full ot inleiest. . . . The coUcctioa is 
vnlufibic both from a folk-lore and a poetical point of view. ... All {the songs) 
are very pleasing, and many ot those who lake up this volume will read il through, 
and. like Oliver Twist, ask for more. Mr. Stuart Glennie points out the pagan 
element of many of these songs, and this survival cannot but be tect^iied in 
olmosl all relics of popular lileraiure.' 


' The peculiar mylhologiui interest attaching to the Romaic ballads arises from 
certain iloating forms of polyihejsiic laiih and superstition which .... still con- 
tinue to haunt Ihc almospbere of the supcmatural in CbristiBn Europe — what Mr. 
Sluarl Glennie, in an interesting essay, colls llie " liurvivol of Paganism." ' 









Iniwitibt (Stiuraluratioiui : 



By Lady Wilde. 6s. 

Harrison, with 24 page illustrations i>y Walter 
Crane. 68. 





tCtteral taii ittettital Iraniglatione 


(SkeeiSti, pdiietb, mi Sbttcli, 





' And bt Idd tli*m the Tate e( Ibc Kiag o( Greece, ud liow hU Daughter itaB 
kepi lathe Dm, and tlial oo eae at all wat ta get Bbautt, Daughter of the 
Kiac ef Greece, to laairy, tmt oue aha could Inieg heroutbygteitvalout.' 

CAHpaaaL, HTiiI JiltUaiid Talii, Vol. iii., p. r^g. 





* Thug' e doibh sgettl air R\gk nd GrHgty agus mar a bha Nighean an 
Rlgh air a gleidheadh ^san Ditn, 's nach robh aan air bith gu Aillidh, 
Nighean Rlgh na Gr/ige^ Jhaotainn ri phbsadh^ ach aon a bheireadh a 
mach i le sdr ^haisge.'^SGEUL Chonuil Ghuilbnich. 












Scholar, Poet, and Socialist, 

THESE translations OF 












Section I. — The Fact op the Sxtrvival of 

Paganish - - - ' ' 3 

„ II. — Pagan Sanctuaries and Folk-song 

„ IIL — The Cause o? the Survival of 

Paganisu . - . . ^ 

note by the translator- - - . 6 

Section I. — Idyllic ----- 6 
„ II. — Christian - - . , ^ 

„ III.— ChARONIC - - II 

Section I. — Erotic - - - - 13 

„ 'II.— Domestic - 15 

„ III. — HUMOURISTIC ■ - - - li 

VI ii General Table of Contents. 



Section I. — Pashalic - - - 199 

„ II. — SOULIOTE - 216 

,, III.-— Hellenic - - 240 


Section L — The Results of the Study of Folk- 
lore ----- 261 
„ II. — A Classification of Folk-lore 265 

„ III. — The Problems presented by Folk- 

^ LORE . - - - - 284 






1. The bearing of the Study of Folk-life and Folk-lore 

on Historical Theory, and the Influ^ce of the 
latter on Political Forces - - - xvii 

2. The importance for Civilization of the Resurrection 

of the Greeks, and the completion of Hellenic 
independence - - - - - xix 

3. The 'Policy of the European Concert,' and the 

two chief actual objects of that * Concert ' with 
respect to Europe - - - - xx 

4. The suggested New Policy of a Greco-Albanian 

Confederation ----- xxi 

Analytzeal Table of Contents, 

5. The relfttton of Modern to Classical Greek, and the 

catises of the different histories of the Greek and 
Latin Langue^es .... 

6. The Greek Patois of Southern Albania, and English 

Paioii of Southern Scotland, and the character- 
istics of the former in relation to Athenian 
Modem Greek - - - - ■ - 

7. The Gaelic ' Tale of the King of Greece,' a legendary 

reminiscence explained by the facts of Keltic 
History ..--.. 


I. The Introduction on Tlu Survival of Paganism was 
strongly deprecated by litterateur critics ; but a 
Supplonent on The.&iatce of Folk-lort is, never- 
theless, now added - - ■ - x 

3. For recognition of the survival of Paganism leads us 
to distinguish between Folk-beliefs and Culture- 
ideals, and hmce to the study of Folk-lore as 
the complement of Culture-lore - - xx: 

3. And only from the records of Folk-lore are true 

notions to be obtained of the Conceptions of 
Paganism as they are, and have been - - xx 

4. Hence the necessity of such a Scientific Classili- 

caUon of Folk-lore as that which I have stated 
and exemplilied, and the falsity of its Identifica- 
tion by the Academy with Passow's Empirical 
Classification - - • - xj 

5. The close connection of my theory as to Paganism 

with my theory as to the Epoch dividing the 
Ancient and Modem Civilizations, and the 
abusive notice of this verified theory by the 
Saturdt^ Rtoieat - xxi 

Analytical Table of Contents. 




1. The Plutarchian L^end of the Death of Pan - 3 

2. The symbolic meaning given to this Legend, and 

its untruth - .... 4 

3. Testimonies to this untruth by Christian students of 

Folk-lore ..... 5 

4. The essential and surviving characteristics of 

Paganism ----- g 

5. Illustrations in our Folk-songs of the synthetic 

Personalizing of Nature, or Fetichism - - 8 

6l lUustrations of the analytic Personalizing of Nature, 

or Spiritism . - - . - jo 

7. Illustrations of untouchedness by the ideas of 

Christianism with respect to Sexual I«ove, and a 
supernatural state of Rewards and Punishments 13 

8. Notwithstanding this, a profound feeling of Family 

kinship, and patriotic devotion to the Fatherland 15 

9. Wliat was the origin of the Legend of which the 

symbolic truth is thus disproved? * 16 

10. A suggestive proximity of localiiies, and synchron- 

ism of dates - - • • - 17 

11. The &ct of survival to l>e more fully illustrated be- 

fore investigating the cause • < iS 



The sites of the Ancient Sanctuaries, centres of origin 

of the Modem Songs - - - , ^^ 

Analytical Table of Contents. ix 

SuB-SBCi'tON I. — Albania. 

1. The Glen of Dodona, and its luined later Temples zi 

2. The primitive Sanctuary imaginatively restored - 32 

3. The Holy Places of Epeiros, and theii systematic 

relations ----- 23 

4. The Achenisian Plain, and the Vergilian localities 

of the New Ilion - - • -34 

5. The strath of lo^nnina, the Hellopfa of Hesiod, and 

Hellas of Aristotle - - - - 25 

Subjection IL— Thessalv. 

1. Roumanian M&zovo, and the Zygos Pass from 

Illyria into Thessaly - - - 37 

2. The Mid-air Monasteries as Historical Monuments 3S 

3. The Upper and Lower Plains of Thessaly and their 

enclosing Hills - - . . - 29 

4. Olympus on its Thessalian and Macedonian sides - 31 

5. The Seat of two Races of Men and Sanctuary of 

two Orders of Gods - - - - 32 

SuB-SECTioK III. — Macedonia. 

1. The range of Olympus, and the variety of iu aspects 

as seen from Salonfca - - - - 34 

2. Salonfca, and the Homeric Rhapsodist of its Kalla- 

merid Gate ----- 35 

3. The original Macedonia, the upland Glens west of 

the Axius , - ... 36 

4. The Promontory of the Holy Mountain and its 

Monasteries ----- 37 
$. Samotbrace, and surviving relics of the worship of 

the Kibeiri • • • • - 39 

The wonder and interest of the survival of Paganism 

above illustrated • • - - 41 

X -'/#riiA7/V<i/ Tabi4 of Contents. 


\ . The hi*iv^n' \M )^>tc$$6d Creeds not the histoiy of 

Religion , . . - 42 

-\ The )\t\^W<Hn )>i>Nsemt^i by the Ovtrthioiril, yet Sur- 

\ ivA\ An\\ KcvivAl vVf rj^Jinisni • - - 44 

^^. IV Nf^^ ^h^^^y ^vf ihi' • I'nity ot Histoiy/ and of 

l^«\NjvvAi> AnUu ^^viluAtion - - - 45 

^. 11^^ Sixth ^Vmwiv K\\ the troe divisioD between 

Aw%^iw\t Aftxi XUvk^n H»^vy * • - 47 

\ iV ^^M>x*vA^ s^\J^i*nAt>.^a j^wn of the oii^ of 

\^^^ )x)ui^);> ^> iS^ uo» x'<^ the RewiJaiioii of the 

Nj\?h \V5Mui> VxO * * • 49 

*\ i,v ftw^ ^^ix^r.-i^i^,;* xM oc«^^«^':vc*^r «!aaiaent and 

5S.^*\i^i >R>ivh ^^h5T«:ifc?i;:.v $ucve<ced in oom- 

Analytical Table of Contefits. xi 





The Sunbom and Hantseri - - - - 69 

The Siren and the Seamen - - - - 74 

The Shepherd and the Lamia - - - - 75 

The StoicheioQ and the Widow's Son - - - 76 

The Stoicheion and Yanni - - - - 78 

Yanni and the Drakos - - - - - 79 

The Witch of the WeU - - - - - 80 

The Witch Mother-in-Law - - - - 81 

The Bridge of Arta - - - - - 81 

The Enchanted Deer . - - - - 83 

The Sun and the Deer - - - - 85 

The Black Racer ----- 86 

The Shepherd and the Wolf - - - - 87 

The Swallows' Return ----- 88 

The Bird's Complaint ----- 89 

The First of May ----- 90 

The Soldier and the Cypress Tree - - - 91 

The Apple Tree and the Widow's Son - - - 92 

The River and the Lover - - - - 92 

Olympos and Kissavos ----- 93 



For the Feast of the Christ-Buths - - - 94 

Saint Basil, or the New Year - - - - 96 

The Feast of the Lights, or Epiphany - - - 97 

Vaia, or Palm Sunday - - ... 98 

xii Analytical Table of Contents. 



Ode to the Seven Passions - - - - 99 

For the Great Friday - - - - - 101 

The Resurrection - - - - - 104 

The Miracle of St. George - - . - 104 

The Vow to St. George - - - - 107 

Procession for Rain ----- 108 

The Visit to Paradise and Hell - - - - 109 


The Moirai - - . - , 

Charon and his Mother - - - - 1 1 1 

Charon^s Wedding-Feast for his Son - - - 112 

Charon and the Souls - - - - -113 

Charon and the Young Wife - - - - 114 

Charon and the Shepherd - - - - 115 

The Jilted Lover and Charon - - - - 116 

Zahos and Charon - - - - - 117 

The Rescue from Charon - - - - 118 

The River of the Dead - - - - 119 

Dirge for a Father - - - - - 120 

Dirge for a House-Mistress - - - - 121 

Dirge for a Son - - - - - 121 

Dirge for a Daughter - - - - - 122 

Dirge for a Sister - - - - - 123 

Dirge for a Young Husband - - - - 124 

The Young Widow . - - - - 124 

The Dead Son to his Mother - - - - 125 

The Vampire - - - - - -126 

Thands^ Vaghia - - - 129 

Analytical Table of Contents. 


The Fruit of the Apple-Tree 

The Neglected Opportunity 

The Wooer 

The Lover's Dream 

The Nuns 

The Despairful One 

ElcniH, the Nightingale 

The Last Request 

The Lover's Return 

The "Widow's Daughter 

The Partridge - 

The Discovered KJss 

The Rake 

The Woman-Hunter 

The Forsaken One 

The Vlach Shepherdess Unkind 

The Vlach Shepherdess Kind 

The Black-Eyed One - 

The Lover 

Fair Ones and Dark Ones 

Blue-Eyed and Dark-Eyed Ones 

The Blue-Eyed Beauty 

The Garden - 

Yanne<5topoula - 

The Little Bird 

The Cypress - 

The Broken Pitcher 


The Bulf^iian Girl and the Partridge 

The Rose-Tree 

The Green Tree 




xiv Analytical Tabic of Contents. 


Sub-section I.— Early Married Life. 


For the Throning of the Bride - - - - 157 

For the Bride's Departure - - - - 15S 

For the Young Bridegroom - - - - 159 

The Wife's Dream - - - - - 159 

The Husband's Departure - - - - 160 

The Exiled Bird - - - - - 161 

The Absent Husband - - - - - 162 

The Husband's Return - - - - 163 . 

Sub-section II.— Lullabies and Nursery Rhymes. 

Lullabies I. — IX. - - - - - 165 

Nursery Rhymes I. — VIII. - - - - 17a 

Sub-section III. — Later Married Life. 

The Parson's Wife - - - - - 175 

The Forsaken Wife - - - - - 176 

The Sale of the Wife - - - - - 177 

MaroiSla, the Divorced - - - - - 178 

The Old Man's Bride - - - - - 179 

The Old Man's Spouse - - - - 180 

Yannakos, or the Assassinated Husband - - 180 

The Child Slayer - - - - - 182 



The Dance of the Maidens - - - - 184 

The Feast ------ 185 

The Janissary ----.. ,35 

The Tree ------ 186 

The Wineseller - - - - - 187 

The Gallants ------ 188 

Analytical Table of Contents. xv 


The Dream - - - - - - i88 

The Refusal - - - - - 189 

The Lemon-Tree - - - - - 190 

The H^oumenos and the Vlach Maiden - - 191 

The Bulgarian Girl - - - - - 191 

The Wooer's Gift - - - - - 192 

The Shepherd's Wife - - - - • '93 

The Klephts - - - - - 194 

The Thief turned Husbandman - - - 196 



The Sack of Adrianople - - - 199 

The Capture of Constantinople - • 200 

The Child-Tax - - - - 201 

Dropolitissa ------ 202 

Night-School Song ----- 202 

The Sea-fight and the Captive - . - - 203 

Serapheim of Phaniri ----- 204 

The Slave ------ 206 

Metsoisos ------ 207 

Christos Milionis ----- 209 

Syros - - - - - - - 210 

Satir Bey - - - - . - 212 

The Capture of Ldrissa and Tirnavo • - - 213 

Soulieman Pashina - - - - - 214 

Noutso Kontodemos - 214 

xvi Analytual Table of Contents. 



Koutsonika - - 216 

Lambros Tzavelas - - - 217 

The Capture of Preveza - - - 219 

The Monk Samuel - - - - 220 

Evthymios Vlachavas - - - - - 228 

Moukhtar's Farewell to Phrosn^ - - - 233 

The Capture of Gardiki . . . . ^^^ 

The Klcpht Vrykolakas - - - - 236 

DcApo of Liakatd -.,... 237 

The Kxile of the Parghiots - - . . 238 





ZitolIcllAsI ...... 

KoHtAM Doukovalas • - . . . 

Tho KIcphl'H Farewell to his Mother - 

The KlcphtM Wintering - - . . 

The KIcphlM Awaiting the Spring - I46 

'I'ho Lovelorn Klcpht - - . . 

The l>cttlhof the Klcpht - - . ' 

SAhl>Aii the AnwAtolc • - . 

Uidkiu the AuuAtolc . ^ 

The SicRt* of MiMolonghi ^ 

- 2C2 

NuvoH MantaloA ■ 

The HAtllc of KalaWkA • "^53 

Kapltan IiA»iWki» . * '^^ 

ThrmijitiHlcH l><nnno\u\>N ^^ 



Anatyiical Table of Consents. 



1. The origin of the new general Study of Folk-lore, its 

literary synchronisms and political consequences 261 

2. The Historical Problems suggested by the geoeral 

results of the Study of Folk-lore - - 362 

3. The need, therefore, of a Scientific Classification of 

Folk-lore, and the inadequacy of that published 

by the Director of the Folk-lore Society • 263 


I. The Definition of J'hH, of Fali-icre, and of tAe 

Science of Folk-lore .... 36^ 

z. The Psychological Analysis of Folk-life is the only 

basis of a Natural Classification of Folk-lore - 268 

3. The Conceptions of Folk-life, and Contents of 

Folk-lore, to be classed apart from the Eiipres- 
sions of Folk-life, and Records of Folk-lo^e 270 

4. The General Classes of the Records of Folk-lore, to 

be derived from the General Modes of the 
Expressions of Folk-life - - - - jyj 

5. The Sub -classification of these General Classes — 

Customs, Sayings, and Poesies— to be derived 

from Analysis of the Conceptions of Folk-life - 275 

6. The further Sub-classification of Customs, Sayings, 

and Poesies to be derived from a further 
Aiudysis of the Conceptions of Folk-life • 277 


>xcr«jx III. 


Those Nationalist Antiquarian Researches, to which the 
chief impulse was given by the enthusiasm excited by 
Macpherson's Ossian (1760), have developed, in the 
course of the century since then, into Comparative and 
Scientific Studies of Folk-life and Folk-lore. The 
results, however, obtained by that earlier Antiquarianism 
had an immense effect on the writing, or rather, in most 
cases, the rewriting of National Histories ; nor was 
History affected only in its facts by Antiquarian results, 
but in its style by Antiquarian imagination — and this 
especially through the influence of those novels of Sir 
Walter Scott's, which constitute a single great Romance 
of European History. But if that earlier Antiquarianism, 
painstaking, yet, in general, sufficiently prejudiced as it 
was, had effects so great on the writing of History ; still 
greater things may, I think, be expected from Anti- 
quarianism developed as it now is into a Comparative 
Science of Folk-life and Folk-lore. If, like the earlier 
Antiquarianism, this new Comparative Science has a 
sphere of influence corresponding to its scope of study, 
it should cause the rewriting, not of mere National 
Histories, but of the General History of Civilizatior. 
Nor is this an inference merely from the greater scope of 
the New Antiquarianism. Invaluable as the greater 

Preface: Remarks, 

generalizations of the New Philosophy of History may 
be as suggestive hypotheses, they have always been 
more or less influenced by the conventional views of the 
educated class to which the Philosopher has belonged. 
Historical generalizations, therefore, thus influenced, 
and yet dealing with large historical facts of Belief and 
Conduct, cannot but be importantly corrected, if not 
altogether recast, if the evidence as to Belief and Conduct 
is sought, not merely, as usually hitherto, in Literature, 
but also, and even more assiduously, in the realities of 
Folk-life, and the records of Folk-lore. It is this view 
and aim, less or more distinctly defined, that has always 
guided my historical studies, and that has recently led 
me to the study more especially of Greek Folk-songs. 
And some results of this study will be found indicated 
in the following Historical Essay on TJie Survival of 

But those Nationalist Antiquarian Researches had 
results far more important llian even tlie rewriting of 
National Histories. It is to these Researches that are 
due, if not the kindling, certainly all the consuming 
power, of those aspirations to National Freedom and 
National Unity, which have been the most revolutionary 
Political Forces of the century, and which are certainly 
not even yet played out. Nor will the New Anti- 
quarianism which, in the intellectual sphere, will cause 
the rewriting, not of mere National Histories, but of the 
General History of Civilization, be wanting in results 
correspondingly great in the political sphere. Histories of 
Civilization which take due account of the results of the 
Comparative Science of Folk-life and Folk-lore, will be 
distinctively theories of Economic Development ; and 
the Political Forces, to which these theories will give at 
once revolutionary heat and determined direction, will 


Political and Linguistic. xix 

aim not merely at National Resurrections, but at 
Economic Reconstructions. The former must precede 
the latter ; and it is, I confess, but for the sake of the 
latter that I would do what in me lies to promote the 

Now, of all National Resurrections, that one which 
will, I believe, most profoundly aid general Eco- 
nomic Reconstruction, is the Resurrection of the Greeks. 
Nor do I think so only because of the position 
occupied by the Greeks in the Levant, their progressive 
spirit, and their great commercial and administrative 
ability. I think so because general Economic Recon- 
struction there cannot be without general Intellectual 
Progress; and because the Greeks— of the educated 
classes, of course, I mean — are, beyond all other 
East-European peoples, imbued with that spirit of syn- 
thetic Intuition and sceptic Curiosity which alone 
emancipates from enslaving Superstition ; that Classic 
Spirit of which a Greek formulated the immortal axioms: 
'Nature is not episodic in its phenomena, like a bad 
tragedy ' {Ovic lot/ce 8' ij ^1/0-49 hreura^id^^i Ivaa €k roaif 
(fxuvo^vuv mawep /iox0rfpaTp€tyovSia — Metaph. XIII. iii.); 
and * All men by nature reach forth to know ' (2Iaj/T€9 
"AvOpo^TToi Tov elSlvcu oplyovraL <f>iaei, — Ibid, I. i.). 
These are the grounds which should, I think, make 
Philhellenes of all who desire that general Intellectual 
Progress which is the condition of general Economic 
Reconstruction. Nor can the political advantage to Great 
Britain of so considerable a commercial and naval ally in 
the Mediterranean as a reconstituted Greece might be — 
nor can this political advantage be, for a British citizen, 
either an unimportant or unworthy additional reason for 
Philhellenism, if he has any due conception either of 
the Imperial duties of Great Britain, or of the position 


Frefact : Remarks, 

which England may take in the van of the Economic 
Revolution. These are the equally large and solid 
grounds of PhJIhellenism, and especially of British Phil- 
hellenism. And hence, not only would I hope, by this 
work, to contribute some further suggestions, at least, to 
the New Philosophy of H istory, the theory of the General 
History of Civilization ; but to contribute also, in some 
degree, to the renewal of British Philhellenism, and 
to the completion of Hellenic Independence. 

Such being the philosophical, and more particularly 
the political aim of the Book, a few remarks may, 
perhaps, be desirable with respect to the Policy that 
should, as 1 venture to think, be followed in giving 
political effect to Philhellenic sympathies, And first 
of all, negatively to define this Policy. It will 
certainly not be the Policy hitherto of 'Liberals' — 
the Policy of the ' European Concert." No doubt, 
there does exist a ' European Concert.' But this 
' Concert ' is very far as yet from being of a ' millennial ' 
character. Its two chief actual objects, so far as 
Europe is concerned, are these : first, to suppress the 
Socialist Revolution menacing, and justly menacing, 
thcivery foundations of our present ' Social Order;' and 
secondly, what here chiefly concerns us, to prevent such 
an enlargement of Greece, however just, as would be 
inimical to the diverse, yet, in this, common interests, not 
indeed of the Peoples, but of the Governing Factions, of 
Germany and Austria, of Russia, of Italy, and of France. 
Never, therefore — never, at least, till all other imbecilities 
were outdone by the Egyptian blindness and blundering 
of a Government tolerated only with the hope of Home 
Reforms — never was there such a piece of contemptible 
sentimentalism, or still more contemptible hypocrisy, as 
the pretence of being able to obtain justice for 

30crisy, as ^^h 
'or Greece '^^| 

Political and Linguistic. xxi 

through the 'European Concert.' The events of the 
spring of 1 88 1 verified what I wrote to this effect in the 
autumn of 1880. The Powers who hope to benefit by 
the expulsion of Pashas from Europe were, notwith- 
standing their treacherous ' invitation/ as opposed as the 
Porte itself to conceding to Greece more than, at most, 
the Plains of Thessaly, and these only with an indefen- 
sible frontier. The * Naval Demonstration' was, there- 
fore, a grotesque, saved only from becoming a tragical 
farce, by complete abandonment of the boundary about 
which this futile bounce was made. And our sentimental 
or hypocritical statesmen were only too glad to get out 
of their difficulties by accepting a slight enlargement of 
Turkey's long-offered concessions in the Thessalian 

In a long series of Letters contributed, in 1880 and 
1881, to the Mancliesfer Guardian and the Glasgow 
Herald^ I endeavoured to show that the true solution of 
the Greek Question was to be found, not in that proposed 
annexation of Epeiros to the Kalamas which, as my 
inquiries proved, would certainly have excited strong 
anti-Hellenic feeling, and been resisted by the Albanians; 
but in such a Greco- Albanian Confederation as I had 
already suggested in 1879 in my Europe and Asia, and 
illustrated in the politico-ethnographical map published 
therewith. Such a Confederation I maintained to be the 
first condition of the enfranchisement of Northern 
Greece from the Turkish, and of its salvation from a 
Slavonic yoke. For it would not only give at once to 
Greece an army of hereditary fighters, and a position on 
the flank of every anti-Hellenic movement in Macedonia; 
but ultimately, as north-western frontier, not the Kala- 
mas, which cuts in half the Greek-speaking population 
of Albania, but such a true ethnographical boundary as, 

Preface : Remarks, 

uniting the racially and linguistically akin Greeks and 
Albanians of a New Heltas, would divide them from 
the racially and linguistically alien Montenegrins and 
Bosnians of a Great Servia. The encouragement and 
support, therefore, of Greek efforts towards such a Greco- 
Albanian Confederation — and, first of all, by the re- 
establishment of the Consulates at loinnina andMonastfr. 
abolished by 'Liberal ' economy — should be the first plank 
of a British Philhellenic Policy. And, as in keeping only 
with that shameful ignorance of knowable, or still more 
shameful denying of known facts, which has characterized 
the whole history of that disastrous Foreign Policy of 
the Gladstone Administration which^ — not only when we 
think of the Transvaal, of Egypt, and of the Soudan, but 
of what this Gladstonian Policy has tolerated, and of 
what it has prepared — may be summed up in three words. 
War with Dishonour — as in keeping only with such a 
Policy of imbecility, the Policy of the ' European Con- 
cert,' as a means of obtaining justice for Greece, will be I 
dismissed with deserved contempt, while maintaining, [ 
however, of course, as long as possible the European 1 

With' reference to the Policy of a Greco-Albanian 
Confederation, one or two notes on the ethnographical ' 
relations of Greeks and Albanians may not be out of I 
place. North of Tepel^ni — famous as the original lord- J 
ship of the great Albanian hero, Ali Pasha — we find 
pure Albanian spoken, with but one or two small dis- 
tricts in which Greek is the common language, and a 
few Vlach villages in which Roumanian as well as Alba- 
nian is spoken. But the whole country south of Tepe- 
leni is Greek -speaking with certain lai^e districts in 
which Albanian as well as Greek, and certain small dis- 
tricts in which Roumanian as \s'cll as Greek, is spoken. 

Political and Linguistic. xxiii 

The more usual, or tripartite division of Albania and 
the Albanians, is a tribal, rather than, like that by a 
line through Tepel^ni, a linguistic division. Upper or 
Northern Albania is the country of the Ghegs, with 
Scodra, or Scdtari as their capital. Middle Albania is 
the country of the Tosks, with Berat as their capital. 
And Lower or Southern Albania — the ancient Epeiros, 
or * Continent,* of the inhabitants of the islands lying 
off it — is the country of the Tzames with — but here 
one comes on a burning question : for of Southern 
Albania, in its general sense, lodnnina is, geographi- 
cally, the capital, but ethnographically, it is a Greek 
rather than Albanian town. Those of the Albanians 
who are Muslims belong, for the most part, to the ex- 
ceedingly rationalistic order of the Bektashi Dervishes. 
And finally, Albanian bears a closer relation to Greek 
than to any other language ; nor is the difference 
between them comparable to that between the Gaelic 
and Scotch of the Highlanders and Lowlanders of that 
Keltic Albania {Albatn or Albanack) which, in the 
eleventh century — ^the same, very singularly, in which the 
former Illyrians were first spoken of as Albanians {to 
r£p "AXCavwv lOvosi) — first began to be called Scotland. 

Having thus defined the philosophical aim, and indi- 
cated the policy by which, as I think, effect may best be 
given to the political aim, of this Collection of Greek 
Folk-songs, I would now make a few remarks, not indeed 
on the Translations^ of which Miss Garnett will herself 
say all that is necessary, but on the Language of which 
they are renderings. 

The Originals are in a patois of which some of the 
characteristics will presently be noted. But it is im- 
portant, first, to point out that, as spoken by an educated 
contemporary Greek, the Language, of which this patois 

Preface: Remarks, 

is a rustic dialect, differs less, in its grammatical forms, 
from that of the Homeric Rhapsodists of nearly three 
millenniums ago, than the Language of an educated 
contemporary Englishman differs from that of Chaucer, 
only half a millennium ago. There are, it is true, 
great and important differences between Classical and 
Modern Greek, both in vocabulary and in syntax — 
differences which I shall presently state, or rather 
summarize (p. xxviii.), and which the student, who 
cares to go into more detail, will easily find out for 
himself by comparing the Alexandrian Greek of the 
Ne^u Testament with Attic Greek on the one side, and 
Romaic Greek on the other. But it is now more than 
thirty years since Professor Blackie first forcibly pointed 
out that the Neo-Hellenic of Tricoupis is but such 
a Dialect of Greek as the Ionic of Homer, or Doric 
of Theocritus ; and that, great as arc the changes in 
English pronunciation since even Chaucer's time, the 
accent in Greek is still on the very syllables accented 
by the grammarians of the days of the Ptolemies, 
mere than two thousand years ago. Not even yet, 
however, is this fact generally realized, if indeed, known. 
This is chiefly due, I believe, to the thoroughly false 
views of European History generally prevalent And 
hence it is by indicating, at least, what will, as I think, 
be found to be somewhat truer historical views, that 
the reader will be most readily enabled to understand, 
and hence realize the fact that, while Italian, for instance, 
differs from Latin, as a new Language, or new genus. 
Modern differs from Classical Greek as but a 
Dialect, or new species. 

The unity which, as shown in the Introduction is, for) 
the first time, given to European- Asian History by the] 
substitution of the natural Epoch of the General Revolu- 


Political and Linguistic. 

tion of the Sixth Century B.C. for the supernatural Era 
of the birth of Jesus — this unity, like every unity of 
Evolution, is a unity, not of identity, but of correlative 
diiTerences. For if the Sixth Century B.c. shows a 
general similarity in the great movements of Human 
Development both in Asia and in Europe, it shows also, 
as pointed out in the Introduction (p. 49), the origination 
then of a profound difference between the Civilizations 
of Europe and of Asia. And so it Is also in the case of 
European Civilization considered by itself. Immortal as 
the Decline and Fall must be, the history of Europe is 
Dot truly, as to Gibbon, the history of the Roman 
Empire. No sooner had a general European Civilization 
been constituted — a civilization, not merely, as in the 
Classical Period (500 B.C — i A.C), of two European 
peninsulas, but, as in the succeeding Neo-Aryan Half- 
millennium (i A.C. — 500 A.C.), a Civilization extending 
from Britain to the Bosphorus — no sooner had such a 
general European Civilization been constituted than, 
under the nominal unity of the Roman Empire, there 
arose two distinctly different Civilizations — the Civiliza- 
tions of Eastern and Western Europe, the Civilizations 
of the Greek and the Latin tongue ; Civilizations different 
in every r^^rd, economical and political, moral and 
religious, philosophical and literary. It is in the inter- 
action of these two clearly differentiated Civilizations, 
and not in an appellation which, for nearly a thousand 
years, was little more than a mere vain and empty name, 
that the true unity is to be found of European Civiliza- 
tion. And the recc^nition of this differentiation and 
interaction may at least prepare us, if not to expect, to 
accept the fact of the utmost contrast between the 
history of the Greek, and the history of the Latin 

Preface: Remarks, 

How it was that Greek remained a Living, while 
Latin became a Dead Tongue — how it was that the one 
lived on in a new Dialect, while the other gave place to 
a new Language, will be further dear on consideration 
of the following facts. Though, after the fall of the 
Western {470), the Eastern Empire was still called 
' Roman,' so little was it in race and language ' Roman,* 
that the Institutes of Justinian had already, in the Sixth 
Century A.C., to be translated into Greek for popular 
use. During the thousand years between the fall of 
Rome and the fall of Constantinople (470 — 1453) 
Classical Greek continued to be the literary language of 
a State which, through the very loss of its provinces, 
became so much more nationally Greek that, when 
Constantine IX. died gloriously in the breach, defending 
not only his capital, but Christendom, from Mohammed 
the Conqueror, he was, though in name a Roman 
Emperor, in fact a Greek King. And just as the 
conditions of the Slavonian, and of the Prankish 
invasions and conquests had formerly been, so the 
conditions of the Ottoman invasions and conquests were 
now, such as to foster and fan rather than stifle and 
quench the flame of distinctive Greek life, and so pre- 
pared the Greeks to lead the way in those heroic move- 
ments of National Resurrection which made illustrious 
the close of the Eighteenth Century. For whereas, in 
the time of the Emperors, the polite was very different 
from the popular dialect — as we know from the two 
poems in that dialect which the monk Theodore 
Ptochoprodromos addressed to the Emperor Manuel 
(1143) — and no effort was made to approximate them; 
yet now, in the general enslavement, such an effort was 
vigorously made by patriotic Greeks, and its success was 
greatly aided by the invention, at this time, of printing.; 


Political and Linguistic, xxvii 

Among the results of these patriotic exertions to amal- 
gamate the Greeks by assimilating their polite and 
popular dialects may be mentioned the Church History 
of Meletius, Bishop of Athens (d. 17 14); the Romance 
of Komaro entitled Erotocritus (1737) ; and the transla- 
tion of the Arabian Nights (1792). This movement was 
brought to a climax by Adamantinos Koraes of Smyrna 
(b. 1748). Since the establishment of the Greek King- 
dom, there has been a sustained effort, in the reverse 
direction, towards the reclassicalising of the Language. 
But still, by poets not of the people, and notably by 
Valaorites (b. 1824), the popular dialects, and especially 
the Epirote patois^ have been largely used for poetry. 
Such are some of the general facts which may enable 
the reader not only to recognise, but in some degree 
also, perhaps, to understand, that identity of Modern, 
with Classical, Greek speech, which not only connects, 
as with a living bond, the Present with the Classical 
Period, but serves also to explain that wonderful identity 
of Modem with Classical Greek sentiment which he will 
find in the following Translations. 

And now with respect more particularly to that 
patois of Modern Greek of which these Translations 
are renderings. It is in tlie Epirote patois that most 
of the Folk-songs here translated have been composed. 
For among rustic dialects of Greek, that of Southern 
Albania holds much the same place as, among rustic 
dialects of English, that of Southern Scotland. There 
is this difference, however, between the two cases : to 
Bums, who made the English patois of Southern Scot- 
land classical, this patois was his mother tongue ; while 
to Valaorites, who made the Greek patois of Southern 
Albania classical, it was, from the circumstances of his 
birth and education, rather his nurse's than his mother's 


Preface: Remarks, 

tongue, and hence his acquaintance with it had, in after 
life, to be perfected by special effort. By no means, 
however, on this account, is the Epirote of Valaorites 
more easy than that of the nameless popular bards who 
spontaneously utter in that dialect their ' native wood- 
notes wild.' On the contrary, it is so labouredly rustic 
as to be more difficult than the genuinely rustic speech 
itself. But M. de Queux de St, Hilaire, in his Intro- 
duction to M, Blancard's Translations of Valaorites' 
Pohttes Patriotiqitcs, goes, perhaps, too far when he says 
of his author's poetical language that it is as remote 
from the true popular, as from the new literary lan- 
guage — ' Cette langue populaire s'tloigne autant de la 
langue litt^raire .... que de la langue aussi factice 
€t idiomatique que Valaorites voulait remettre 

The patois of these Folk-songs may be generally! 
characterized as simply carrj'ing a stage or two further * 
those dilTercnces which distinguish from Classical Greek, 
the Modem Greek of educated speakers. The latter, 
as is well known, differs from the former in the loss of 
tenses by the verb — the use of the auxiliaries BiXm and 
'x'" fo"" the future and perfect, and of va (iwi) instead of I 
the infinitive — and the loss of cases by the noun — the 
genitive and dative being confused with the accusative. 
And not only thus, as to grammar, but as to words, 
Modern differs from CLissical Greek in these various 
ways : in the ordinary use of what were formerly 
poetical words ; in the use of old words with new 
meanings ; in the curtailment of words ; in the lengthen- 
ing of words, particularly for diminutives; and in the i 
importation of new words from all the languages with j 
which the Greeks as a people have been brought into J 
contact — Latin, Slavonian, Italian, Albanian, and Turkish. ] 

Political and Linguistic. 

Now, in the patois of these Folk-songs all these differ- 
eaces as to grammar and as to words between ordinary 
Modern, and Classical, Greek are exaggerated, and there 
are besides some interesting peculiarities of pronuncia- 
tion rather than of words. These consist either in the 
elisioD, or in the change, not only of vowels, but of con- 
sonants. In certain districts v, and in others />, is elided; 
in certain districts, k is substituted for r, and in others, 
p for X. And particularly remarkable in this respect is 
the difference between the patois of the storm-secluded 
old PelasgiaD' island of Samothrace ; and the patois of 
the adjoining mainland of Thrace and Macedonia, where 
Greeks are mixed with Bulgarians. In SamothraCe 
there is an elision of the harsh p in the words in which 
it usually occurs ; while on the mainland a rasping p 
seems to be preferred to a liquid \, and one hears the 
natives address each other as dSeptfii, instead of oSeA.^^! 
The result of these peculiarities, added to the exaggera- 
tion of all the differences that distinguish educated 
Modern from Classical Greek, is, that one who can read 
the Modern Greek of Athens with ease, may find very 
great difficulty with the Greek of the Folk-songs ; while 
one who can easily read the Greek of the Folk-songs 
may be almost wholly unable to understand the Literary 
Greek of Athens. But just so a foreigner, perfectly 
familiar with Literary English, would be unable to 
understand Broad Scotch, or the Lancashire, or East 
Anglian Dialects, either spoken, or written phonetically 
with all their elisions and transmutations. 

One word, in conclusion, with reference to the mo/to I 
have chosen from the Gaelic Sgeulachan, translated by 
the late Mr. Campbell of Islay. It may, perhaps, be 
found to be not without appropriateness. For the occur- 
rence in Gaelic Folk-stories of the * Tale of the King of 

XXX Preface : Remarks, etc, 

Greece' has, I believe, an historical, as well as poetic, 
significance. Philologists have now proved that Keltic 
has the closest affinities with Latin ; hence, close 
affinities, and particularly, perhaps, in its Kymric dia- 
lects, with Greek; and hence that Kelts, Latins, and 
Greeks, probably derived their origin from a primitively 
united stock. Among the chief events of the Classical 
Period, or half-millennium before Christ, were the Keltic 
invasions, not only of the countries occupied by their 
ancient kinsmen in Italy and in Greece, but invasions 
also of Macedonia, Thrace, and Asia Minor, in which la^t 
they established their kingdom of Galatia. It is these 
historical lelations with the Greeks that have, I believe, 
given rise to the Gaelic ' Tale of the King of Greece.' 
For — as I have elsewhere indicated, and may hereafter 
more fully show — the history of the Kelts as a great 
European Race has been as continuous as that of the 
Hellenes themselves since the upbreak of the Ancient 
Civilizations in the Sixth Century B.C. Hence, there 
would appear to be no improbability in their traditions 
reaching back even to so early a date as their invasions 
of Greece. And it is curious to remark that the most 
distinguished of English-speaking Philhellenes — the 
most distinguished of those who have sought to deliver 
from bondage 'Beauty, the daughter of the King of 
Greece' — have, almost all, had in their veins a more than 
usual proportk)n of the Keltic blood which is common to 
the whole Britannic Race. 


I. The reviewers of the First Edition (1885) of these 
Greek Folk-songs were unanimous in their flattering 
comments on the Translations. To the critic of the 
Aihenaum we were particularly indebted. For he not 
only praised but corrected ; and, as will be seen on 
comparing page 99 in the first, and in the present 
edition, we have duly profited by this, the only correction 
suggested. Almost equally unanimous, however, were 
the critics in their deprecatory, for the most part, rather 
than unflattering, comments on such an Introduction to a 
collection of Folk-poems as an Essay on T/ie Survival of 
Paganism. Yet, whether their deprecation of such an 
Introduction was well founded or not, depends on one's 
point of view. No doubt, from such a mere literary 
standpoint as that of the Academy critic, these Transla- 
tions were but poems, and a scientific Introduction to 
them was naturally pronounced 'out of place in asso- 
ciation with a book of poems,' But from a scientific 
point of view these Folk-poems are deeply significant 
historical documents ; as historical documents the great 
fact to which they bear witness is the Survival of 
Paganism ; and as this fact has been by no means as 

xxxii Preface to the Second Edition: 

yet duly recognised in its various very important bear- 
ings, 1 venture to think that anything but tlie raost 
purely litterateur criticism would have welcomed, rather 
than deprecated, an Introduction calling attention to 
this fact, and indicating one, at least, of its causes. I 
have, therefore, in this Second Edition, not only retained, 
and here and there corrected, the Introductory Essay on 
\hz Survival of Paganism, hnt I have added a Supple- 
mentary Essay on that Scitnce of Folk-lore which arises 
from the fact of the Survival of Paganism. Considering 
those ethnical, linguistic, and historical nzlations of 
the Kelts and Greeks, glanced at in the conclusion of 
the Preface to the First Edition, I much desired to 
add also to this Second Edition a classiiied set of illus* 
trations of Greek and Keltic Folk-lore Analogies, 
and I made a large collection of materials with 
this view. But, in the present condition of English 
Criticism, such an addition would but have entailed 
further expense with probably the reverse of any kind of 
compensating advantage.' And aggravating the offence 
of my Introduction on The Survival of Paganism by 
a Supplement on Tlie Science of Folk-lore involved, as 
its penalty, quite as much of a pecuniary sacrifice as I 
found myself able to afford. Fain, however, I would 
hope that my book may attract, at length, something 
like scientific criticism, and that litterateurs may 
bethink themselves that they do not increase estimation 
for English Criticism by expressions of opinion which 
would in principle condemn Grimm, Von Hahn, and 
other such German Editors of Folk-lore collections for 
the scientific Introductions with which they have deemed 
it by no means incongruous to accompany even Nursery- 
stories. And with this hope I would offer some remarks 
which, in explaining how the study of these Folk-songs 


Remarks, Explanatory and Critical. xxxiii 

led to the writing of these Essays, may show, perhaps, 
that there is really some Justification for offering them 
for perusal along with these Translations. 

2. The study of these Folk-songs was taken up in the 
course of the researches to which I was led by my travels 
in Northern Hellas. ' The fact with which I was first of 
all impressed on perusing them — as I think should also 
be the case with the reader — was that of their complete 
Paganism, meaning thereby, more particularly, the almost 
entire absence of any trace of distinctively Christian 
dogmas — any trace of the dogma of the Trinity ; of the 
Fall, with its consequence of universal Damnation ; of 
the Atonement; of the Sinfulness of sexual relations 
save in indissoluble marriage ; and of eternal Hell and 
Heaven. The comparison of Greek Folk-poesy (Folk- 
poems and Folk-tales) with the Folk-poesy of other 
Christian peoples, only confirmed and enlarged my 
conclusion as to the survival of Paganism in Christendom. 
But if Paganism thus still survives in Folk-lore, and if 
Folk-lore therefore consists, in fact, but of the records of 
Pagan conceptions, the study of Folk-lore must become 
the necessary complement of that study of Culture-lore 
from which the conclusions of historians have hitherto 
been almost exclusively drawn. For if Pagan con- 
ceptions have thus survived among the people, it will 
follow that the history of Christianity has been far 
more the history of a Culture-Ideal than of a Folk- 
Belief; and this conclusion must, in the most important 
degree, affect our future histories of Christian Civilization. 
It should not, indeed, require the study of Folk-lore to 
convince of the Paganism of Folk-belief. But only, 
perhaps, after a study of Folk-lore does one duly profit 
by those results of everyday experience which will then, 
at least, make it clear that the priestly dogmas of 

xxxiv Preface to the Second Edition : ' 

Christianism have never met with but the most partial 
and temporary acceptance among the masses of the 
so-calted Christian peoples. That Paganism survives 
also among those professing the other two great moral 
Religions of Islamism and Buddhism is undoubtedly- 
evidenced by the Folk-lores of these peoples. The 
dogmas, however, of these Culture Religions, and espe- 
cially those of Islamism, have certainly penetrated 
among the people professing these Religions, and thus 
become genuine popular beliefs far more than has been 
the case with the distinctive dogmas of Christianism. 
And hence, paraJoxical as the statement may appear, in 
neither Islamic nor Buddhistic countries is the survival 
of Paganism more complete than — so complete, one 
might perhaps say, as — it is in Christendom. 

3. But Folk-lore, when it is considered as consisting 
simply of the records of Pagan conceptions — that is to 
say, of the conceptions which, in more or less dis- 
integrated and modified forms, have survived the new 
Moral Religions of Buddhism, Islamism, and Christian- 
ism — Folk-lore when it is thus considered, and com- 
paratively studied, gives us our only genuine knowledge 
of what these Pagan conceptions really are, and have 
been, And I venture to think that when we endeavour 
to gain our knowledge of these conceptions from the 
genuine records of Folk-lore, instead of, as hitherto, for 
the most part, from the reports of more or less ignorant 
and prejudiced travellers and missionaries, our notions 
of Pagan conceptions of things, our notions more parti- 
cularly of what have been distinguished as 'Fetichist' 
and 'Spiritist' beliefs, will probably be very much 
altered, and will certainly be far more true. Here, then, 
are two conclusions which give great historical import- 
ance to the recognition of that survival of Paganism 

Remarks, Explanatory and Critical, xxxv 

with which the study of Greek Folk-songs chiefly im- 
pressed me — first, recognition of this survival leads one 
tomake the very important historical distinction between 
Culture-ideals and Folk-beliefs ; and secondly, it shows 
one that true notions as to what Pagan conceptions are, 
and have been, are to be obtained only from the 
comparative-study of those sole genuine records of these 
conceptions which we find in Folk-lore. Such conclu- 
sions must evidently give to the study of Folk-lore a far 
higher historical importance than that which it could 
justly claim as the mere Antiquarianism which it has 
hitherto, for the most part, been. And I may therefore, 
perhaps, venture to confess that the humiliation I felt 
on reading criticisms condemning as incongruous and 
uncalled-for an Introduction in which the historical im- 
portance of the survival of Paganism was pointed out, and 
the cause of its survival in Christendom was, in part at 
least, explained— I may, perhaps, venture to confess that 
the humiliation I felt was less that of penitence on my 
own account, than of shame for English Criticism. 

4. If, however, one duly recognises the historical im- 
portance of the survival of Paganism, as evidenced in the 
records of Folk-lore, one will hardly rest satisfied, con- 
sidering the artificial character of present Classifications, 
till one has worked out that indispensable preliminary 
of a scientific use of Folk-lore — a Natural Classification 
both of the Conceptions it contains, and of the Records 
in which they are expressed. The principles, therclore, 
on which I have classified these Greek Folk-songs were 
derived, not only from a consideration of the principles, 
but from an actually elaborated scheme, of a General 
Classification of Folk-lore : and, but for my publisher's 
only too just appreciation of the non-scientific character 
of English Criticism, a Supplement on the Science of Folk- 

xxxvi Preface to the Second Edition : 

/(^^y written in February, 1884, and similar to, but less full 
than, that now appended, would have been included in 
the First Edition. It was clearly stated, however (p. 65), 
that my * Classification of Greek Folk-songs was based 
on general principles which I might hereafter have an 
opportunity of illustrating and defending.* Yet notwith- 
standing this, the Rev. Mr. Tozer, my Academy critic, 
not only, as has been noted, condemned the Introduc- 
tion as ' out of place in association with a book of 
poems;' but, in flat contradiction of my assertion that 
my Classification was based on general principles worked 
out by myself, he declared that * the songs have been 
arranged on the whole on Ou same principle which 
has been adopted by Arnold Passow in his Popularia 
Carmina Grcecix Recpitioris! The facts are these — 
Passow's arrangement of Greek Folk-songs is into Eight 
Classes — I. Klephtica ; II. Historica ; III. OiKULKa (a 
very miscellaneous class for which he gives no general 
Latin equivalent) ; IV. Charonea; V. Amatoria; VI. 
Pastoralia; VII. Amatoria (another set of amatory 
songs for which, however, he finds no other Latin term 
to distinguish it from the former set of Amatoria) ; and 
VIII. Disticlia {Amatoria and Varia), My arrange- 
ment is into Three Classes — I. Mythological (or Cos- 
mical) ; II. Affectional (or Social) ; and III. Historical. 
Passow does not even profess to have any scientific 
* principle* of arrangement whatever, but only * prin- 
ciples such as these — the division of Carmina KleplUica 
into those Certi ^vi and Incerti ^vi, and the arrange- 
ment of Disticlia secundum litterarum orditiem primi 
cuiusque verbi! I have not only no such divisions at all 
as 'Klephtic Songs' and *Distichs;' and still less such 
•principles' of subdivision and arrangement as 'Certain, 
and Uncertain Date,* and * Alphabetical Order ;' but the 

Remarks, Explanatory and Critical, xxxvii 

principles of art-angeinent throughout my Classification 
are deduced from those principles of the Psychology of 
Folk-life from which alone, as I maintain, the principles of 
the Classification of Folklore can be scientifically derived. 
These facts, therefore, I pointed out in a letter to the 
Editor of the Academy, and begged to be allowed to ask 
the Rev. Mr. Tozer to name the 'principle' which 
Passow had 'adopted,' and to show that this 'prin- 
ciple' was, as declared, ' the same ' as that by which my 
Classification bad been guided. To comply with either 
of these requests would, no doubt, have been impossible 
for his Reverend Contributor. But still, considering 
the usual fairness of the Editor of the Academy to 
authors who consider themselves to have been mis- 
represented in its columns, I hardly expected to have 
the publication of my letter refused in the following 
terms : — ' I have decided not to print your letter. I 
cannot see anything tn the review of the book that is 
unjust, nor is the subject of sufficient importance to 
justify discussion.' 

5. The critical style of the ' Higher Culture ' was still 
more signiftcantly illustrated by my Saturday Review 
critic Fifteen years ago, in my ' Essay on the New 
Philosophy of History,' I not only deduced a great 
epoch of Subjective Differentiation from the General 
Law of Mental Development, but, in veriBcatton of 
this deduction, I pointed out that the result of an 
immense number of independent historical researches 
was to show that the Sixth Century B.C., with its new 
Moral Religions and other similar phenomena, must be 
not only recognised as such an epoch as I had deduced, 
but as the true epoch of division between the Ancient 
and Modem Civilizations. Since the publication of that 
Essay, all historical research bearing on this generaliza- 

xxxviii Preface to the Second Editioa. 

tion has only served to illustrate and confirm it ; and my 
connected generalization, published twenty years ago, 
and stating a Law of Half-millennial Periods verifiable, at 
least, in that Age of Civilization which dates from the 
Sixth Century B.C.,was independently and simultaneously 
worked out and illustrated (i S67) by the late distinguished 
philosophical historian, Professor Ferrari. In treating of 
the Survival of Paganism, I could not but refer to that 
great epoch which divides the Civilizations of Paganism 
from the Civilizations of the New Moral Religions ; and 
this is how a generalization founded on, and corrobo- 
rated by, the last half-century of European research, was 
commented on by my Saltirday Review Critic: 'The 
supernatural era of the birth of Our Lord is not good 
enough for Mr. Stuart-Glennie. With rare modesty he 
produces a generalization of his own, the natural epoch 
of the general revolution of the Sixtli Century B.C.' 
And the rest of the criticism of this anonymous, but 
not unknown, reviewer, abounds in such personalities as 
these : ' The object attained by Mr. Stuart-Glennie is 
apparently not unlike the barber's. He succeeds in 
proving that he believes no more than some of his betters.' 
'He is "advanced" after the manner of ejuView, and 
fires off his emancipated ideas in volleys,' etc, etc. 
Now, to those competent to judge of the originality and 
truth of the ideas set forth in the Introduction and 
Supplentent, and partially illustrated in the representa- 
tive completeness, and systematic classification of the 
Translations, I submit tliat the pitiful personalities, 
and the careless, at best, if not deliberate, falsehoods of 
the above-cited reviews of this book arc a disgrace to 
English Criticism. And seeing that the Academy and 
the Saturday Rcz>icw are not small provincial organs of 
ignorant Christian Orthodoxy ; and that those champions 


Remarks, Explanatory and Critical, xxxix 

of ' Our Lord,' the reviewers of this book, have shown 
themselves very much more 'emancipated ' than one who, 
as a Socialist, strongly believes in Truth, and in Duty — 
readers may, perhaps, excuse my saying that I think the 
facts above-mentioned are not unworthy of note as 
illustrations of the somewhat low condition to which log- 
rolling rings have reduced English Criticism ; and as 
illustrations, perhaps, also of that literary corruption 
which naturally goes with social, and with political, 

J. S. S.-G. 
6, Ckown Office Row, Tbhfle, 
Eaiter, 1888. 


' The Oracles are dumb : 

No voice or hideous hum 

Jfuns through the arched roof in words deceiving,- 

Apollo from his shrine 

Can no more divine 

With hollow shriek the steep of Deiphos leaving. 

No nightly trance, or breathed spell 

Inspires the pale-eyed priest from the prophetic cell' 

Milton : Ode on the Nativity. 

* Though the feet of thine high-priests tread where thy lords and our 
forefathers trod, 
TTtough these thai were Gods are dead, and thou being dead art a Cod, 
Though before thee the throned Cytherean be fallen, and hidden her 

Yet thy kingdom shall pass, Galilean, thy dead shall go down to thee 

Swinburne : Hymn to Proserpine. 



I. In Plutarch's Dialogue ' On the Cessation of Oracles,'^ 
Kle6mbrotos, the Lacedaemonian, who had been travelling 
io £gypt and the Soudan,^ and who had met, among 
others, at Delphi, the Grammarian, Demetrius of Tarsus, 
who had been travelling in Britain, at the opposite end of 
the Roman worid' — this Kle6mbrotos informs the com< 
pany that ^milian, the Rhetorician, had told him a won- 
derftil story touching the mortality of Dxmons. On a 
voyage made by his father, Epitherses, to Italy, when 
they were still not far from, the Echinides Islands, the 
wind fell, and they were drifting in the evening towards 
the Islands of Paxi. Then, suddenly, as the passengers 
were drinking after supper, a voice was heard from one 
of the islands, calling on a certain Thamus so loudly as to 
fill all with amazement. This Thamus was an Egyptian 
pilot, known by name to but few on board. Twice the 
voice called him without response, but the third rime he 
replied ; and then the voice said, ' When thou contest over 
against PalSdes, announce that the great Pan is deadJ" On 
bearing this, all were terrified, and debated whether it were 
better to do as ordered, or not to trouble themselves 

■ De Dtf. Orac., xviL 
*II^ njv TpttyKtivTir^ yi^v, 
3 Tqc oicnifiiviK. 

Historical Inlroductwn. 

further about the matter. As for Thamus, he decided 
that if there should be a wind, he would sail past, and say 
nothing ; but if it were a dead calm and smooth sea, he 
would give his message. When, therefore, they were 
come over against Palodes, there being neither breath of 
wind nor ripple of wave, Thamus, looking towards the land 
from the quarterdeck, proclaimed what he had heard : 
' The great Pan is dcad.'^ Hardly had he said this, when 
there arose a great and multitudinous cry of lamentation, 
mingled with amazement.* And as this had been heard 
by many persons, the news of it spread immediately on 
their arrival in Rome, and Thamus was sent for by the 
Emperor, Tiberius Cassar. Such was the story of 
iSmilian, as reported by Kleombrotos. As ^milian was 
an 'old man' when he told the story, and as his father 
had flourished under Tiberius, the period of the ' Dialogue ' 
would appear to be about the end of the first century a.c, 
in the reign of the Emperor Trajan, But as Tiberius 
died in 37 a.c, having succeeded his stepfather, Augustus, 
in 14 A.c, the date of this death of Pan has been plausibly 
assumed to coincide with that of the crucifixion of Christ. 
2. Now, as it singularly chanced, one September day in 
1880, il was amid the very scene of this romantic legend 
of the death of Pan — and certainly no more splendid scene 
could be imagined for such a legend than that vast moun- 
tain-girt sea-plain and gleaqiing iand-locked bay identified 
\vith Pal6des,^ on the Albanian coast, opposite Corfu — it 
was in my boat in the bay, and while wandering over the 
plain of Vutzindr6' {Bovm^impop), that an Epirote friend 
spoke to me of the recently-published 'A.a/j.ara rou 'Htnifw 
(' Songs of Epeiros '), collected by Dr. Aravandinos, of 
lo^nina, and of which, next day, he was good enough to 

* "On A fiiyat TlAv Ti9y^tct: 

* Ptolemy, Plutarch, and (he word itself, sufficiently identi^ Pal&des I 
with ihe muddy bay of Vutzindr6,— Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i 


The Survival of Paganism. 

present me with a copy. Singularly it thus chanced. For 
this Plutarchian legend is often repeated or alluded to as 
a &ct by mediaeval authors, as also by Rabelais, by 
Spenser, and by Milton ; its essential, if not formal, truth 
has, indeed, become almost an article of Christian faith ; 
and yet the result of the modern study of Folk-lore — and 
the result more particularly in my own case of the studies 
occasioned by that conversation on the ' Songs of Epeiros ' 
amid the scenes of this Epirote legend of the death of Pan 
— has been a conclusion directly contradictory of what has 
hitherto been the popular Christian belief with respect to 
the destruction of Paganism, That conclusion may be 
thus stated. Among the masses of the Greek people 
Christian Church-beliefs have not only not substituted 
themselves for, but have hardly even traceably influenced, 
Pagan Folk-beliefs ; further, a comparison of the Folk- 
songs of the Greeks with the Folk-songs of other nominally 
Christian peoples shows that this non-penetration of pro- 
fessed Christian beliefs is not pecuHar to, but only some- 
what more conspicuous among, the Greeks ; and hence, 
finally, we may affirm that, so far as concerned or con- 
cerns the masses of the Christian peoples, there was as 
little of essential as of formal truth in the legend of the 
mystic voice at Paxi, and of the multitudinous lamentation 
at Palodes. Or, as one may otherwise express it, the 
great Pan of Pagan writers is not, nor ever has been, 
dead; and neither the birth nor the death of the great Pan 
of Christian writers — ' Christ, the very God of all shep- 
herds, which calleth Himself the great and good Shepherd '' 
— neither the birth nor the death of Christ had the effect 
so fondly fancied by Christians, and so finely described in 
those Eunous lines of Milton's — 

' The looely k 
And the resounding shore, 
A voice of weeping heard and loud lament ; 

' E. K. (Edwaid Kirke) commenting on the line 

' When great Pan account of Shepherdes shall askc,' 
n Uw M<:^ Eclogue of Spenser's Shcpkerifs Calendar. 

Historical Introduction. 

From haunted spring and dale, 
Edged with poplar pale, 
The parting Genius is with sighing sent ; 
with nower-inwoven tresses torn 
The Nymphs in twilight shade of tangled thickets mourn." 

3. Startled as some readers may be by the conclusion 
thus expressed, it may be desirable to give, or refer to, some 
passages confirmatory of it in Christian writers. * At the 
outset,' remarks the Rev. Mr. Tozer,^® 'we may say broadly 
that the beliefs of the modem Greeks respecting death 
and the state of the dead, so far as we have the means of 
judging of them, are absolutely and entirely Pagan. In 

9 Ode on the Nativity^ s. xx. I venture to think that Professor 
Masson {^Milton's Poetical Works^ vol. iii., p. 356) is probably mis- 
taken in imagining that 

' A voice of weeping heard * 

refers to the Massacre of the Innocents at the birth of the Christian 
Pan, and to Matt ii. 18, and Jer. xxxi. 15 ; and not rather to the 'great 
cry of lamentation mingled with amazement' of the Plutarchian legend 
of the death of the Pagan Pan. It is true that 'the mighty Pan' of 
line 89 must be interpreted to refer to the Christian Pan. But the 

' The lonely mountains o'er, 
And the resounding shore, 
A voice of weeping heard and loud lament,' 

are not only, the last one, a tolerably close translation of Plutarch, but 
the first two a singularly graphic description of Pal6des, the scene of 
the death of the Pagan, and no description at all of Bethlehem, the 
scene of the birth of the Christian Pan. 

I mav add that, as these lines can be construed only by such 
strained interpolations as the following : 

* The lonelv mountains o'er. 
And [o'er] the resounding shore, 
A voice of weeping [is] heard and loud lament,' 

one is tempted to suggest 'hoar' for 'o'er.' This would not only be 
uncontradicted by any MS., but would be in accordance with Milton's 
usage in Allegro^ 

* From the side of some hoar hill ;* 

and in the third song in Arcades^ 

' On old Lycnus and Cyllene hoar.' 

But against such an emendation it is, I fear, a fatal objection that it 
would involve a change of tense from that of the context 
»o Highlands of Turkey ^ vol. ii., p. yii. 

The Survival of Paganism. 

the numerous ballads which relate to these subjects there 
is not a trace of any features derived from Christian 
sources, while the old classical conceptions are every- 
where manifest. It may be said, indeed, that in any 
country the views on the subject of religion which might 
be gathered from a collection of popular songs would be 
of a very questionable description, and would not &irly 
represent the beliefe of the people. But this objection 
does not apply to the modern Greek ballads, as they are 
the simple and straightforward expression of the ideas of 
an unlettered people on the points to which they refer. 
Some of the songs are intended for Christian festivals, 
others are dirges to be sung at funerals, and others relate 
to snbjects akin to these. But in none of them does the 
bdief in a Resurrection or a Future Judgment make itself 
apparent. That the people at large have no knowledge of 
those doctrines it is hard to believe ; but, at all events, 
they have not a sufficiently firm hold on their minds to 
come prominently forward, and they certainly have not 
succeeded in expelling the old heathen notions. And if 
most of the figures which we associate with the Inferno of 
the Greeks, such as Pluto, Perseph6n6, Hermes, K^rberos, 
etc., are now wanting, it should be remembered that, in 
^icient times, the popular conceptions of such a subject 
were in all probability much simpler than the elaborate 
scheme which is found in the poets.' Similar conclusions 
are expressed by other scholars." And Archbishop 
Whately afBrms generally,'^ and with equally good reason, 
that ' the vulgar in most parts of Christendom are actually 
serving the Gods of their heathen ancestors. But they 
do not call them Gods, but Fairies or Bogies, and they do 
not apply the word worship to their veneration of them, 
nor sacr^e to their offerings. And this slight change of 

8 Historical ItUroduclioK. 

name keeps most people in ignorance of a fact that is 
before their eyes/ " 

4. There is, however, something of superficiality in the 
Archbishop's notion of modem Paganism as showing 
itself only in a veneration of Bogies and Fairies. By 
characteristics of a far deeper and more general kind 
must Paganism, and particularly Western Paganism, be 
defined, if our study of Greek Folk-songs is to have 
any important historical result. In Western Paganism, 
whether as it flourished before, or as it has survived since, 
the destruction of its Sanctuaries, we find, I think, uni- 
versally three General Characteristics, which may perhaps, 
be thus respectively distinguished : (i.) a profound feeling 
of oneness with Nature, and a mythic personalizing of 
its phenomena, inanimate as well as animate ; (ii.) Un- 
consciousness of Sin in sexual love, that is, not mere 
lust, and non-belief in a supernatural state of Rewards 
and Punishments ; and (iii.) a profound feeling of Family 
kinship, and patriotic devotion to the Fatherland. By 
characteristics of an exactly opposite kind would historical 
Christianism have to be distinguished. But here I must 
confine myself to pointing out some of the illustrations of 
these Pagan characteristics which the reader will find 
in the following Folk-songs. 

5. First, then, as to the feeling of oneness with Nature, 
and the personalizing of its phenomena. The impressions 
producuil by natural phenomena lead to their being per- 
Houuli/eil in two different ways — a direct way, and an 
imlirect. IVrsonuli/ing in the direct way, the Sun is 
reprosonted as pityingly addressing a sad and lonely 
Oeer;** or us angry with the Moon and Stars.^* The 
l>uwn lA 8|H)ken of as a n\an whom alone a Nvidow's 
daughter ilesires as husband*^* The Moon weeps in sym- 
pathy with the sorrowing Virgin ;^^ and is prayed to by a 

^* Con\(Ukre, for inatanc«» for the Teutonic Kace» IIkimm's IkuUdu 
MvtMi^^u: Oaskni\ F^^iar ly^Usfh^m M^ AVr*ir; and Hkndsr- 
SON, FiHk'ii/r^ iifth< AWiA^m Ctmm^i^s .^9iVkd tor the SUvonic Kace^ 
Rai s 1\>N, Si>f^s y /A«r l^ujfSi'uM /'in^' and Kttjfstam I^W^ia^^s: 1\>20N, 
/W^i^jr A^/<iir«rj S^r^s^ and CktMjistmf MMairifs /»*!a^arrM/ Naaki^ 
SiavoMH' yMfy-ia/^s; and Chox>zko^ ( i^^ins Si^tv^ 

'4 TnMIJ^ |x. S5. »*ApkUi. »»/^pwi4K ^•/^^pwiOK 

The Survival of Paganism. 

child going to a night-school," in the bad times of un- 
checked Turkish oppression. The Stars are brimming 
with tears ;" and the words used in speaking of the 
setting of the Morning-star, as likewise of the Sun — ^aatr 
XewB and ffaalXevfta — denote also reigning as a king.^ 
One boastfully speaks of himself as the son of the Light- 
ning, and of his wife as the daughter of the Thunder.'* 
Mountains are asked questions and respond.** Proudly 
Olympus disputes with Kissavos, and boasts of his glories ; 
or, falling in love with his fellow mountain, now called by 
the feminine name of Ossa, they become the parents of 
the Klepht Vlachava ;^ whose head, when he is slain, his 
faithful dog carries to his mother Ossa, and buries in 
the snows of her bosom. Into Rivers lovers would fain 
transform themselves, and so consciously embrace their 
mistresses and rid themselves of the poison of passion.** 
Things inanimate of all kinds are represented as living — 
discovering the kiss of lovers ;'* asking questions of, and 
making requests to a saint ;'* or ^scinated by a siren ;^ 
her pillow and couch sympathetically respond to the 
complaint of a forsaken wife;^ a bridge is rent in 
twain and a stream ceases to flow on hearing the sad 
lament of a widow j'^ and a ship stops sailing, horrified 
at the groan of a prisoner.^ Trees, and especially 
the Cypress,^' Apple,*' and Rose-tree;^* and Fruits — 
Lemons,** and Apples;'' — and Flowers — Basil and Car- 
nation — are all endowed with human feeling and with 
speech ; nay, by the blooming and withering of a Rose- 
tree and a Carnation,'* a mother knows of the health, 
and finally of the death, of her son, a klepht on the moun- 
tains. It is Birds — Eagles," Partridges" and Crows,** 
Cuckoos,** Blackbirds** and Nightinga:les** — who sing the 
dirges of the slain, or give warning to the living of death 
or betrayal ; ' that he may have a gossip with Birds ' (kux** 
/ii TO irovXui KovOpra), the dying klepht begs that he may 

»• Tratu. p. 202. "9 lb. p. loi, "= /*. p. 79. " 16. p- 80. " 16. p. 93. 

'1/4. p. 328. "/*. p. 92. "i/*. p. 142. "*/*. P-96. ''' fb. p. 74. 

=■/*. p.i76. ■»/*. p. 125. yy*. p.203. 3'/*. p. 91. J'/*, p. 92. 

»/4.p.iS4. »/d.p.i37. 35/Ap.i37. J*/i.p.243. 37 /A p. 241. 

3" 16. p. 314. » /*. p. 254. *° /*. p. 253. <■ J6. p. 253. *' lb. p. 199. 

Historical Introduction. 

be carried u 

1 Bird, TTovXi, bewails I 

1 mountain-r 
her hard fate in colloquy with a king's daughtei 
Partridj^e reproves an erring Bulgarian girl ■.'^'■' and an Owl 
heralds the approach of Vampires,** Finally, among 
Beasts, a Deer complains to the Sun of the cruel hunter 
who has killed her child and her husband ;*' a Horse 
understands the entreaties of his mistress, and wins a 
wager for bis master ;'* and a Wolf, on being questioned 
by a shepherd, complains of having been illtreated by his 
dogS) when he was about to regale himself on a lamb.*" 

6. But besides this primitive and eternal poetry of the 
direct personalizing of Nature, animate and inanimate, 
there is also, in these Folk-songs, what may be called 
an indirect personalizing of Nature in the creation of 
Beings mythically representative both of universal and of 
special aspects of Nature — in the creation, in a %vord, of 
Gods and Demi-gods. The Fates (Molpai.) and Chance 
{Pi^LKov) Still hold the same place as of old, as Powers 
above and behind all Gods.'" But the most remarkable of 
all the mj-thical Beings mentioned in our Folk-songs are, 
perhaps, ol Tpew Xjoix^ia tov Koafi.ov — the three Elements 
(or Spirits) of the Universe.''' * I strongly suspect,' says 
the Rev. Mr. Tozer," 'that here the underlying idea is 
that of the Holy Trinity.' And another wTiter, in alluding 
to these Stoicheia, speaks of them as 'the three Earth- 
Spirits, whoever they may be,' The song, however, in 
which they are mentioned belongs to Salonica; Thessa- 
lonica was famous for its worship of the Samothracian 
Kibeiri ; and the Kabeirian God of Thessalonica was 
adored as one of a Trinity of which the youngest had 
been put to death by the others." I venture to think 

"3 7>fl«j. p. 2s6- <<W. p. 89. 45/(. p. IS4. <«/*. p. 130. 

47 /i. p. B5. ** /*. p. 86. « 16. p. 87. *> /*. p. 1 1 1 . 

5* /*. p. 75. 5» Higklimdt of Turkty, *ol. ti., p. 317, n. 

" See Laaantius, Julius Firmicus Matemua. and Clemetii of Ales- 
andria, as cited by Lenotmanl in DAftEM^ESG'S Dic/wtinmre dfS A n/i- 
guilitJ, Cabiri. p. 769 andflg. This Christ-like personage appears as a 
young man on the coins of Thessalonica, And the stor>- of his death, 
with the figures of ihc other memljers of the Kabeirian Trinity, is repre- 
seoted on the metallic mirrors of Elruria, which, in the second half of 
ibe fourth, and io the third century B.C, appears to have been strongly 


The Survival of Paganism. 1 1 

that, in bringing these facts together, I have identified 
these Tpw Sroix^id rov Koafiov of Salonica with the 
Kabeirian Trinity of the Thessalonians. Next among 
the mythical personages of our Songs may be named 
£lioy6nnet6 and Hdntseri,** of whom the lay is an evident 
Sun -and -Moon m5rth, or Endymion - and - Sel6n6 story. 
And next among the greater Gods of modern Greek Folk- 
life, and so holding a place similar to that of the God of 
the Underworld in the ancient M5rthologies, is Charon. 
A Charon we find also among the ancient Etruscans,^ and 
both names appear to have been derived firom the Egyp- 
tian Horus;^® though the emblems of Charon are those 
of a Kabeirian God. But it was not till the sixth century 
B.C. that there was sustained and general intercourse be- 
tween Greece and Egypt.^^ Hence, it was not probably 
till about this date that Charon took his place in the 
imagination of the Greeks ; hence, not till about the same 
time that the notion of the Devil got separated from that 
of God in the Hebrew M5rthology.*® And the reason of 
Charon being thus adopted as a Greek God or Demi-god, 
may be found partly in the fact that Hades could now be 
restricted to signifying a place, and not, as hitherto, both 
a place and a person.*** But, in the old Aryan M5rthologies, 

affected by an influence proceeding from Macedonia and the Isles 
of the Thracian Sea. See Gerhard, C/eder die Metallspiegel der 
Eirusker^ in his Gesam, Akad, AbhandL^ vol. ii. 

54 Trans, p. 69. 5S See Dennis, Etruria, vol. ii., pp. 182 — 191-3- 

5* Sec Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians^ vol. v., p. 433. 

57 This was in consequence of the establishment, by Psammetichus, 
of Greek mercenaries, lonians and Karians, on the Pelusiac or eastern 
liranch of the Nile, at a place called Stratopeda, or the Camps (Heko- 
IXXrus, il 154), and of the permission given by the same Pharaoh for the 
s^tleroent of Greek merchants at Navkratis on the right bank of the 
Kanopic Nile. See Grote, History of Greece^ vol. ii., pp. 496-97, with 
respect to the apparently conflicting statements on this point of 
Hmdotus and Strabo. But this introduction of Charon into the 
Greek Pantheon was but one of the lesser consequences of that open- 
ing of the Nile by Psammetichus of which the greater results made an 
epoch .in Hellenic thought. 

^ Compare i Kings xxii. — iv. with i Chron, xxi. ; and see Roskoff, 
GtsckichU des Teufels^ b. I., ss. 199-2126, Reville, Histoire du Diable^ 
and GOLDZIEHER, Mythology among the Hebrews. 

59 Trans, pp. 116, 129. 

there were a vast number of minor mythical Beings below 
the Universal Trinity of Heaven, Earth, and Hell, the 
Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer. Similarly, in 
the Neo-hellenic Mythologj', below the modern representa- 
tives of these Greater Gods, there are a great number of 
minor poetic creations more or less obviously expressive 
of the impressions made by special natural phenomena. 
Among these, the following will be found in the Transla- 
tions given below — Stoicheia*" of Mountains, Rivers, and j 
Wells; Nereides*^ of Rivers; Lamias*- of the Ocean; 
the Tragoudistria,"^ or Siren; the Drakos"* and Dra- 

** TriiJts, p, 76, 78. Srai;[iToi' appears to be derived from <niixia, togOf I 
especiaily, /c TO ^/t'rcH* another in line or order. Hence, i"'oij[(Iov,oiay 
have originally signified that which moves. From this it would r^Ldily 
come to mean, as in present popular usage, ' the principle of hTe or 
spiritual power which lies concealed in every natural objecl, animate 
or inanimate.' Later, in I'lalonic and subsequent philosophic usage, 
•msixva means 'elements,' Plato's oronrio were ideas. Those of 
Kmpedoclcs were forms of matter, and he endeavoured to show thai 
there were but four. In another usage of the word, the signs of the 
Zodiac were called iiroi;(ETn, and the term seems to be used generally 
for the ' Heavenly Powets.' Such Biblical critics as, for instance, Baur 
{Christenlhum, s. 49) and Hilgenfield {Galattrbritf, s. 66), are of 
opinion that it is certainly in this sense that St, Paul uses the phrase rd 
oroixeia rou roo/ioii, and that he attributes to these Genii, or Spirits 
of the Universe, a distinct personahty. Compare GaL iv. 3, etc.; 
Col. ii. 8, 20 ; and Ephes. vl IJ. The Revised Version, however, still 
retains the old translation of 'elements' or 'nidimcnis,' and so misses 
comolelely the true meaning of these passages. See Geldart, 
Modem Greek, pp. 301^5 ; and The Gospel aetording to St. Paul, 

p?- 25— S- 

*' lb. p. 135. The Greek Nereids are unlike our Northern Fairies (see 
Maury, /%j da Moyen Age) in being almost universally malevolent, 
and not diminutive, but full-grown women. They are, however, called 
•caXmii mfiB^Fc, or ' Good Ladies.' Dm we use a similar flattery when 
we exclaim ' CoaA God !' on anything happening particularly bad. 

*= lb. p. 75. The Lamia of the Greek Islands seems to be connected 
with whirlwinds and waterspouts. The Lamia of PhilosTRATUs {De 
Vita Apolloini) is a serpent in the shape of a woman. Oiflferent 
as they are, each of these Lamias is a mythical representation of a 
fact of human experience, and both convey the idea of serpentine 
motion. The Lamia of Keats is taken from the story of Philostratus, 
as told by Burton, Anatomy 0/ Melancholy, p. iii., s. il. 

-i lb. p. 74. 

"< /*. p. 79. 'The Dragon of popular Mythologj-,' says Mr. Baring 
Gould, ' is no other than the thunderstorm rising at the boriion, rush- 


The Survival of Paganism. 

■ cri] 

kissa ;*^ the Panoukla,** or Plague; and Theria,"' or 
Monsters. And in yet another class must be named such 
creations as Digenes,** and the Enchanted Deer — a Chris- 
tiani2ed version, apparently, of the story of Agamemnon 
and the Sacred Hind of Artemis ; Mdyissas,"^ or Witches, 
sometimes of a thousand years old; and most terrible, 
though not the last of all,'" Vampires,"' or Animated 

7- So far as to the first characteristic of the following 
Folk-songs. Now, as to that unconsciousness of Sin in 
sexuaJ love, and nonbelief in a supernatural state of Re- 
wards and Punishments, which we nest remark. For 
striking illustrations of the former characteristic, I may 
refer the reader more particularly to the Vow io St. George, 
aod to Ydnnakos, or Ihc Assassinated Husband, and to the 
Erotic and Humourislic Songs generally." Indeed, in the 
two songs particularized, there seems to be no con- 
sciousness of sin, even in such infamous incidental 
crimes as rape and murder. In the Vow to SI. George, 

le Saint is represented as bribed by a Christian maiden 

with expanded, winnowing black pennons ai 
ils forked fiery tongue, and belching fire,' — 

s the sky, darting 
nwolves, pp. 172, 


i monsters of the primeval world. See the author's Ai a Hi^h- 

lanJ Hut, Fraset's Maknsini, October. 1874. 

*l Trans, p. 79. » lb. p. 204. ^1 lb. p. 78. ^ Tb. p. 83. 
^ tb. pp. 80, 81. AfaNASIEf. On the Poelu Views oftlie Old Slavo- 
' mt, interprets Witches also— very questionably however, I think — as 
jinally Nature-myths, See Ralston. Russian Folk-taks. 
^ Though not mentioned in the following Folk-songs, there are 
Kh other frightful creations of the popular fancy, as the Empusa, 
[ornio, Goi^o and Gcllo, etc. See B. Schmidt, Volksleben. 
"" Vatnpire- tales flourish most luxuriantly among races of Slavonic 
iccnt, and it is from Slavs thai the Greeks have borrowed both the 
U, and certain views and customs with resp>ect to Vampires. But 
. Vampire bears a thoroughly Hellenic designation in the Islands- 
Crete and Rhodes being called laraxivnc ; in Cyprus, D-opcu'^iivac ; s.-nA, 
Tinos, dvawaltou^ii'Dc. And a number of passages may be quoted 
(m classic authors to prove that in Ancient Greece spectres were 

frequently represented as delighting i 

Uhen der NeugrUcken,%%, 168— 171; : 

p. J19. See also Pashley, Travels 
f Trans, pp. 184 and^fig. 

blood. SeeB. Schmidt, Kj«j- 
id Ralston, Russian Folk-laUs^ 
I Crelc. Trans. 126, 129. 


Historical Introduction. 

to hide her from 

Turkish lo- 



discovering her place of concealment on being more 
largely bribed by the Turk. In 'Vanna)io%, a lover prays 
to God Himself that he may find a husband 'in bed, 
in his shirt, and ungirt with his sword,' and ' as he had 
prayed, so he found Ydnnakos.' And in the Humour- 
istic Songs, we find either the incontinence of monks and 
nuns satirically treated as a matter of course ; or the 
consequences of attempted continence are satirized in lan- 
guage that cannot be reproduced" — yet quite justly, as 
the experiences of my sojourn on the Holy Mountain 
proved/' As for unbelief in a supernatural state of 
Rewards and Punishments, every one of the pieces 
in the section I have named Charonk may be cited in 
evidence. To die is simply to be carried off from home 
and friends, and all the joys of o airdvtu Kov/iov, the 
Upper World, by the remorseless Charon. The Earth, 
which is sometimes spoken of as the Mother of Charon, 
is also identified with him : and hence, in the dialect 
of Epeiros, one says for ' he died ' either t6v (<payep ^ Fjjs, 
or rop eipayep 6 Xapot — ' The Earth,' or ' Charon ate 
him.' The abode to which Charon bears off the souls of 
mortals, when he does not 'eat' them, is sometimes repre- 
sented as an Underground Region to which there is a 
descent by stairs ;" and sometimes it is spoken of, with 
significant allegory, as a Tent, either green or red outside, 
but always black within.'* As for the Dead, they are repre- 
sented, in general, as Shades as pale and mournful as in 

" As, for instance, in ihe last half doten lines of yaani, Aravan- 
Disos, 367. See^so Oikonomides, B. 8, 10, 11, etc. 

!< I alliide more particularly to the Confessions with which I was 
favoured by a monk with whom I had opportunities of becoming 
rather in dmate. The poor wretch had bad the doctrine of Hell so 
ground into him, that be really believed be would be eternally 
damned for bis intrigues with country- wenches, when managing the 
fanns of his convent in the island of Tbasos, and on the mainland. 
He could not, however, see any real sin in what seemed to him siill so 
natural ; and he consoled himself with the reflection that his (iittue 
torments would be as nothing compared with those of his brethren 
who preferred more cultured, indeed, but unnatural, objects of passion. 

75 Tram. p. 117. '* /A p. 116, 118. 

The Survival of Paganism. 1 5 

Homer; and, as also in Homer, it is only the most atrocious 
criminals who are, after death, affected by punishment for 
deeds done in the body — this, however, not as a Tantalus 
or a Sisyphus, but by being transformed into Vampires. In 
the Jlfj^Wo/o^ia, or Dirges, the mourners in no single instance 
console themselves with the hope or belief that the beloved 
dead are in a state of bliss. The dead son can comfort 
his mother only by directing her to a hill where she will 
find herbs of forgetfulness.^^ And a wife can but say of 
her husband that he ' has taken the Black Earth for a 
second wife, and a Tombstone for a mother-in-law.'^® 
Even among the Songs specially distinguished as Bprja- 
K€VTuca — Religious, or Christian — a visitor to the Other 
World finds Good and Bad, or rather Poor and Rich, all 
in one place, the only difference in their condition being 
that the Poor are in the warm sunshine, and the Rich in 
the chilly shade.^* 

8, The third characteristic of the Songs, I have defined as 
a profound feeling of Family kinship and patriotic devotion 
to the Fatherland. In illustration of the former I may refer 
generally to the Exile Songs, and tothe Myriologia or Dirges ; 
and also to such incidents, for example, as that of the 
Brothers' rescue of their Sister from Charon ; and such 
requests by a dying man as that his Mother may be told not 
that he is dead, but pnly that he is ' married in a far country.' 
As to devotion to the Fatherland, the whole class of His- 
torical Songs may be cited in evidence. The ballad of the 
Capture of Constantinople^ ends with the assured prophecy 
that, after long years, the Panaghia and the Icons shall 
dwell again in Ayia Sophia, the Holy Basilicon of the 
Divine Wisdom, founded by Constantine, and rebuilt by 
Justinian. Never, through centuries of oppression, has the 
hope expressed in this prophecy been extinguished. Gene- 
ration after generation, mothers have sent their sons to 
battle against the Turks ; and to mothers less heroic, sons 
have cried, ' Mother, I tell thee, I cannot serve the Turk — 
I cannot, it is beyond endurance.'^^ Again and again, times 

77 Trans, p. 125. ^ -^. p. 125. ^ lb, p. 109. 

•» lb. p. 20a *» lb. p. 243. 

innumerable, there has arisen from patriot ranks the | 
Homeric shout :*' 

' Heroes, lake heart, show yourselve 
And we'll clear out the Turka.'S4 

Greeks i ^> 

Nor has this been sworn only, but in great part done. i 
And ^ Soi^ij "fiXXas' — 'Enslaved Greece' — is now re- 
stricted to those Northern and still Turk-ruled provinces 
whence come these Songs. 

g. Such, then, as evidenced by our Greek Folk-songs, 
are the facts of the survival of Western Paganism in 
everj' one of its essential characteristics : and I may add 
that nowhere, perhaps, will the reader be more struck 
with the absence of distinctively Christian sentiment 
than in the 'Odes' for the Feasts of the Christian 
Church." Recognising these facts, we ask with a new 
interest what the origin was of that legend of the death 
of Pan which was not improbably told to Plutarch 
himself, as well as to the personages of his ' Dialogue,' 
at Delphi,^" and which has been seized on with such ■ 
avidity by Christian writers, as at least a mystical typej 
of, if not a direct testimony to, the overthrowal of Pa-' 
ganism. This question can hardly, I think, be dis- 
missed with the observation that, of the passengers who 
heard the mysterious voice, ' many were drinking after 
supper,'^'' though it may be noted that the story was told 
by a professional Rhetorician. Most fictions have a 
kerne! of fact.** And, riding one day along the sandy 
beach near Nicopolis — the city built to commemorate 
that battle of Actium which was not only a battle ] 

8j 'Q ^rXoi, iylpit lari cai oXitipov ijrop fXiffPf. //, v. 529. 
*3 Literally ' Christiana ;' but see note, Trans, p. 242. 
*4 Tram. pp. 240, 142 and Jig. '» 16. pp. 94 and Jig. 

** Ploiaren seems, from what he himself says (Ifpi rou 'R iv AtA^if), 
to have been at Delphi during the Emperor Nero's visit, in 66 a.C. 

<T iroXXDit It nil Tiivtiv In liiuiri^tirac. 

*' Wild as it is, even the great British cycle of Arthurian Eaion has 
been shown by Mr., {Feur AneitHl Bookx of Walti,) and my- 
self, {Arthurian Localities,) to have a clear kernel, not only of historic 
fact and provable lime and place, but of still living local tradition. . 

The Survival of Paganism. 

between Augustus and Antony, but a war between the 
East and the West, and a victory, though but a political 
victory, of Europe over Asia — riding along this historic 
beach one day, and observing that the island of Paxi 
was within clear view of the city where, according to the 
apocryphal Epistle to Titus, Paul ' determined to winter'™ 
— Paul who gave a religious victory to Asia over Europe 
— there occurred to me what I may offer as a possible 
answer to this question as to the origin of the legend of 
the death of Pan. 

10. Might it not possibly owe its origin to the enthusiastic 
imagination of some convert from Paganism, a presbyter 
of the Primitive, if not Pauline Church of the City of 
Victory; but an Epirote versed in all his country's legends, 
and particularly with those which had just been used by 
Virgil, and which consecrated to every Roman the en- 
virons of Pal6des*'' — might it not possibly owe its origin 
to the poetic fancy of an ecstatic meditation on the very 
sea-beach along which I was journeying, outside the walls 
of the Pagan, and now long-ruined city ?" For what was 
originally but a fable, making a Bne peroration to an 
edifying discourse, would naturally get reported as a fact 
that had actually occurred. Or — still more probably, 
perhaps — might not voyagers actually have heard some 
enthusiastic convert to Christianity on a still evening, 
calling out from the beach of Paxi, ' AirirfieiKov — Spread 
the tidings that the great Pan is dead !' Whether either 
or neither of these two suppositions be accepted, I venture 
to think that it is, at least, important, with reference to 
the origin of this story of the death of Pan, to note, not 
only the Pagan consecration of the scenes of it, but — what 
has not, so &r as I am aware, hitherto been noted in this 

^ See for a discussion or tlie question as [o the wintering of Paul at 
Nicopolis, RENAN, St. Paul, Introd,, pp. xxxvii.— xlviu 

9» See helffw, p. 25- 

9' In the beginning of the fifth century Nicopolis was plundered by 
the Goths. It was still, however, in the sixth century, the capital of 
Epeiros. But during the Feudal Period it lost its importance, and Pre- 
veza, at the end of the promontory, was built out of its ruins. 

connection — the proximity of the Apostolic Church of 
Nicopolis. Nor is it, perhaps, less important to note, 
along with this proximity of localities, a synchronism of 
dates. The date of the reporting of this story of the 
death of Pan is the date also of the Apocalyptic litera- 
ture, of which the great masterpiece is the ' Revelation 
of St. John the Divine." Probably, also, as we have seen,"* 
or at least possibly, it was when he was at Delphi with 
the Emperor Nero, in 66, that Plutarch himself heard 
the legend which, in his 'Dialogue,' is said to have been 
reported at Delphi, And the synchronism just noted 
becomes especially significant when we reflect on what 
Nero was to that last of the Hebrew prophets, the Seer 
of Patmos, when writing his 'ATroKa\inr<n<{ at Christmas, 
6S-9.*' Though ignominiously slain in June, 68, Nero was 
by some believed to have taken refuge with the ' Kings of 
the East,' the Kings of Parthia and of Armenia; by 
others to be resuscitated in the false Nero who established 
bin:iself in the island of Cythnos, near that of Patmos. 
And Nero was, to the Hebrew Seer, at once the seven- 
headed Beast, and that one more particularly of its 
heads"* which vras ' as though it had been smitten unto 
death, and his death-stroke was healed '"^ — the Beast the 
numeric value of the letters of whose name, Nlpav Keuaap, 
transcribed in Hebrew, is ' Six hundred and sixty and six,'** 
II. Such was the time, whatever may have been the cir- 
cumstances, of the origin of this Apocalyptic legend of 
the death of Pan. But the announcement of the Prose- 
Ij-te of Nicopolis — if so we may call the originator of the 
legend — is now known by all scholars to have been as 
visionary as was the revelation of the Seer of Patmos. 
None, however, even of those writers who have most 
clearly pointed out the survival of Paganism in contem- 
porary or recent Folk-belief, have, so far as I can recall, 

»• Ahmv, p. 16, note 86. 

93 See Reman, VAnluhrist, chaps. x!ii,— xviL 

Tlie Survival of Paganism. 19 

seriously attempted to account for this survival. But, 
unsatisfied with merely establishing the fact, we shall 
here endeavour to ascertain the cause, of the survival of 
the Aiyan Paganism of the West. For the discovery of this 
cause cannot but have an important bearing on our whole 
conception of Progress, and on our theory more particu- 
larly of the origin, and hence nature and history, of 
Christianity. But before proceeding to investigate the 
cause, I must say something more of the fact. This I shall 
do in pointing out the relations of the scenes of the modern 
Pagan Folk-songs to the sites of the ancient Pagan 
Sanctuaries. For thus, more powerfully, perhaps, than in 
any other way, I may bring home the fact that, though 
the sacred Oaks lie prostrate, chopped, and charred, aU 
about them there has never ceased to flourish a green 
and lusty Copse ; that, prostrate as may be the Gods of 
the poets, never to the Deities of the people have their 
sacrifices failed ; that never 

' From haunted spring and dale, 
Edged with poplar pale/ 

never have the Nymphs 'with flower-inwoven tresses' 
really departed;*^ nay, that even the greater Olympian 
Gods are transformed only, and deformed,^^ in Greek 
Christianity, rather than dead — ruined though their 
Sanctuaries are ; and that every glorious peak or promon- 

97 As the Rev. Mr. Tozer mildly puts it, ' When Milton, in describing 
the overthrow of Paganism [wrote those lines], heffixed on one of the 
most essential elements in Greek mythology, but at the same time 
had hardly realized, perhaps, hew permanent and ineradicable this 
tdUfwas^'—Highlattas of inrkey^ vol. ii., p. 315. 

90 Compare the Christian portraits of Father Jehovah with the 
Classit statues of Father Zevs ; the Christian portraits of Christ with 
the Classic statues of Apollo ; the Christian portraits of the virgin 
Mary with the Classic statues of the vimn Athen^ Christian art 
genorally portrays its Gods in paintings ; Classic art, in statues. But 
a statue of the Trinity— an old and a young man with a small bird 
between them— adorns the Graben at Vienna — a statue profoundly 
instructive for those who would understand why it was that the 
b^evers in an unfigured AllahJ contemned and conquered their 
Christian adversaries, expelled them from Asia, and enchained them 
in Europe. 



Historical Introduction. 

tory, consecrated of old to almighty Zevs, is sacred now 
to the Omnipotent (IlavToicpdTwp) ; or of old, to the Sun- 
god, "HXto^, Apollo, now to St. Elias ('Ayto"; EXiai); or 
to the virgin Athene (Hap^eco!), now to the virgin Mi 



Crossing the lake of loSnnina, and climbing to 
shepherd-village on the steep side of Metzik^li — an out- 
work of Pindus, towering some three or four thousand 
feet above the level of the lake, itself a thousand feet 
above the level of the sea — we gain a platform from which 
we see a great part, and can conveniently begin the 
description, of the first of those Turkish provinces of 
i Greece to which the following Folk-songs belong. On 
I the November morning on which I actually made this 
ascent, setting out on a shooting expedition with the 
French Consul, lake and mountain were alike covered 
with a thick mist that made our crossing of the lake a 
long and somewhat anxious voyage. But suddenly, as we 
approached the village on the first ridge of the mountain, 
the sun arose in unclouded glory on the summits of 
Pindus, coming over the Thessalian plains from Mount 
Olympus. Before the all-conquering God the mist 
vanished from the hollow of the lake ; traces only of its 
discomfiture were left in disjointed wreaths, some lying 
reluctant still on the hillsides, but most floating swiftly 
away ; and all South Albania, or Epeiros, lay clear before 
us, from the Pindus to the Ionian Sea. I look for the 
localities of the 'Aa^fiara toZ ^Htrtifiov, the ' Songs of 
Epeiros.' And presently it strikes me that the localities 
both of the origin and of the scenes of these modern 

w See PoLlTEs, NFoVWiivuoi Mi^o\07ia ; and compare the books 
ofTHtESSCH, of Sanders, and of B. ScttUTDT, on the Volksletcn der 

The Survival of Paganism-. 

Songs are identical with the site and environs of the 
ancient Oracle of Dodona, and Sanctuaries of Zevs, 
Di6n£, and Hades. A similar observation we shall make 
when looking for the localities of the Songs of Thessaly, 
and of the Songs of Macedonia. We shall hnd, in a word, 
that the modern centres of the still characteristically 
Pagan Folk-songs of Nort:hern, or ' Enslaved,' Greece are 
none other than the ruin-covered sites of the ancient 
Sanctuaries of Dodona, of Olympus, and of Samothrace. 
And thus, everywhere in Northern Greece, in describing 
the country of the ancient Sanctuaries, I shall describe 
the scenes of the modern Songs. 

SuB-SECTioN I.— Albania. 
I. Easily, in the clear siir, we descry, from where we 
DOW stand, the rocky bridle-path over those hills of the 
Souliots on the opposite side of the valley, which takes 
one, in a couple of hours' ride from lodnnina, to the Glen 
of Dodona,* 'of the hard winters,'^ yet 'the beloved of 
Zevs." Some time before standing here on Metzik^li, I 
bad had a week of exploration and adventure in those 
mountains. Arrived at the summit of the ridge of the 
bridle-path, we were fitly warned by a clump of fine oaks 
that we were about to descend to the Sanctuary of that 
Dodonean Zeik tcarq^. Father Zevs, to whom the oak was 
sacred, not only because of the strength of its timber, but 
the nourishment of its fruit.* A long, steep, and winding 

■ Tbe true site of Dodona seems now to have been proved beyond 
dispute by the results of the diggings of M. Kakafanos, as set forth in 
bis Dodoite tt set Kuints. But it is instructive still to read Colonel 
Le a ke's arguments in support of his conjectural site of the city of 
Dodona on the hill of Kastritia, and of the temple of Dodona on the 
rodty peninsula of loinrun^ the former to the side of, and the latter 
fftdng Metzik^li, which he identifies with Tomaios, pointing out that 
the name is stiU preserved in the adjacent village, called Tomarokhdria 
{NortktmGrttct,s(A. iv.,pp. 168—201}. Compare also FOUQUEVILLE, 
Voyagt de la Grice. 

" npi ivaxf'Pf'*- ^l- V. 355. Aufwvqc /uciwi' fivxi'/upo". //. 

3 1V<2 

.9( Zc^ t^Oifft. Hesiod, ap. Schol. in Soph. Trachin, 1169. 
4 See De GUBERNATis, MytkoiogU des Plattta, t ii., pp. 68--9. 


Historical Introduction. 

descent brings us down to a retired glen. We ride u| 
walls of great stones, nicely fitted to each other, but 
uncemented ; and of which the few courses that are still 
standing form a quadrangular space on an eminence jutting 
out from the hills. We dismount, and climbing along the 
walls, presently take in the whole scene, and find it worthy 
of its fame. East and west runs the glen ; low are the 
hills to the north, whence we have come ; but over them 
rise, in the distance, the summits of Pindus. To the 
south, to our right, therefore, as we look eastward down 
the glen, towers up the great mass of Tomaros — now 
called Olyt si ka— between 4,000 and 5,000 feet above the 
level of the glen, which is itself some 1,500 feet above the 
level of the sea. This is the grand feature of the scene. 
Above the \illages on the lower slopes is a fringe of the 
primeval oak-forest. And above this again a long range 
of grandly precipitous heights. 

2. For the ruined and razed later Temples' much, but 
for the primitive Sanctuary little, restoration is required. 
It was probably but a grove of oaks of a somewhat 
grander size on this eminence, with a fountain springing 
up under their giant branches. Richly mosaic'd, indeed, 
is the floor of this Temple. But its pavement is only of 
rough stones, covered with lichens and mosses ; or of 
grasses, with wildfiowers interspersed. Rich gifts also 
adorn its altars. But they are only the first flowers of 
spring, or first-fruits of autumn, or firstlings of the flocks 
and herds nourished by these. Music agitates or soothes 
the soul in this Temple. But it is the music only of the wind 
itself on those sacred vessels of metal which commemorate 
the origin of new powers over Nature and Man ; or the 
music of rustling leaves and tinkling waters ; or the music of 
thunder-bolts resounding through the re-echoing moun- 
tains. And light fills this Temple vrith joy, and darkness 
makes it the abode of terror. But its light is only the 

5 A very interesting description of a picture of the temple of Dodona, 
with its garlanded oak, and golden dove, its choral dances, sacrificing 

Eriests, and ministering priestesses, is given by PHil.oSTRATWs, Icon, 
ii., c. 34, and is cited by LEAKE, Norfhem Crerce, vol. iv., p. 199. 

The Survival of Paganism. 23 

Star of our Earthly Day, or the Golden Lamps of the Day 
of the Universe. The Temple itself is at once Temple 
and Divinity. And the hymn that its priestesses chant is 
but a first simple verse of that which every prophet and 
poet adds to, and renews — but a verse of the eternal hymn 
of man's worship of the divine ensphering Heaven, and 
the matemat nourishing Earth. 

Ztff ^v, Zc^c iirr<, Ztuf inatral, lu piyaXii Tea t 
To (wpxniV riprti, <!io K\n)!^iri /iijripa rniav 1* 

Zevs was, Zevs is, Zevs will be, O great Zevs ! 

Earth biingeth forth fruits, therefore call Earth Mother 1 

3. But the Sanctuary of Dodona was only one locality 
ia a system of Holy Places which together localize all the 
^ief ideas of the creed of Aryan Paganism. The Glen of 
Dodona was the Sanctuary of the Pelasgian God of the 
Upperworld, the Sky-god, the Sun-god, Diespiter, Zevi 
•ffuT^p, Diaushpiter.' With him was joined Dione, but a 
feminine form of Ze\'s (Z«/?, gen. Jk!s), and the name 
under which, by the Pelasgians of Dodona, the Earth- 
mother, Tij /i^Tijp, Siifi^nfp, was worshipped.* And the 
deep and dark ravines of Souli were the Sanctuary of 
the God of the Underworld, Hades. "-ilSijs, 'jIiSij-;, 'AlBo- 
wut," the Dis (gen. Ditis) of the Pelasgians of Italy, and 
the Vedic Aditi, the Earth considered as the Receptacle 
of the Dead. And just as, to the north, the strath of 
loatinioa is like a forecourt to the Sanctuary of Zevs ; so. 
to the south, the Acherusian Plain, with its rivers of 

•PAUSANIAS, X. xii. 10. 

7 U6 iya ^aitiiivaii II(\d«7i«. — //. xvi. 233. 

' Strabo, vii. 329. The Diom^ of the Pelasgians of Dodona was 
tfienrards identified with the H£r£ of the Pelasgians of Pelopon- 
nesus. ' H 'Hpa Xvirtj iripa ^uc•lt■alos (SchoL Od ili.91); a"<I "ici 

woiild appear to be derived from the old Greek 'Kpi, the Karih. 

9 The proof of this is to be round, not merely in ancient writers, but 

in existing facts. Two churches within, and two at Glyky nnd Para- 

mythia, entrances to, the mountains of Souli. and thus no fewer than 

I four — nearly all — the Souliot churches, are dedicated to Aiiovn-i, under 

I tbc bat ttighily chanced name of 'Ai' aovaro ('Ayiac Aovaroc) And the 

• lef ends attach log to Ai' Danato both as a person and as a pLice — the 

most rcmwkablc, perhaps, of the latter being preserved in the first of 

the Folk.wngs given below—these legends are all of a distinctively 

iladet cbaracter. 


Historical Introduction. 

Acheron and Kokytos,'" was the forecourt of the ' House 
of Hades.' To this forecourt it was that Odyssevs drew 
the Ghosts of the Dead athirst for the blood of his 
sacrifices ; and here it was that passed, according to 
Pausanias,'^ the whole of the wonderful, and often most 
pathetic, scenes of the Eleventh Book of the Odys&cy. 
For ere he could penetrate to the ' House of Hades ' 
itself, 'pale fear gat hold of Odyssevs, lest the high 
goddess Perseph6ne should send him the head of Gorge, 
that dread monster, from out of Hades, "^ The intimate 
connection of all these localities, and the reason of the 
distinctively systematic character of Aryan Holy Places 
generally, has not hitherto, I believe, been pointed out. 
But here I can only indicate the reason in suggesting 
that it is connected with that characteristic relativity of 
Aryan conceptions which has caused Aryan theology to be 
always Trinitarian,'^ and so, the antithesis of that Uni- 
tarian Semitic theology in which God is represented as 
the absolute One, Yahveh, or Allah.'* 

4, The Acherusian Plain, of old the country of the 
Thesprotians, with its capital Pandosia, on an eminence 
in the middle of the plain, extends to the sea. On a 
conical rock, swept round by the waves, is the citadel of 
the famous Parga, from which come so many of our 
Songs, and which was probably founded, about 1330, 
by inhabitants of the ancient Tor6n6 ( Pal aeo- Parga) 
gathering about the sanctuary of the Hyperaghia 

""There seems no reason to doubt that the Gurla, or river of Suli, 
is the Acheron; the Vuvo. the Kilytos of antiquilj-, and the great marsh 
or lake below ICasiri, the Achtrusia. The course of the Acheron 
through the lake into ihe iilykys Uimh accords perfectly with ihc 
te&limony of Thucydides, Scylax, Livy and Strabo ; and the disagree' 
able water of the K6kyto5 is mentioned by Pausamas.'— Leake, 
Narthertt Greece, vol, \v., p. 53. 



■ I. X 

11. 5. 

" Butcher and Lang, Otiyssey, p. 191. 

13 As lo the distinction between the Aryan Neo-Platonic, and that 
monstrous hybrid the Semitic Christian Trinity, see beh^, pp. 56—8. 

•4 See further with regard lo the modes of conception characteristic 
of the Semitic and Aryan races respectively, beh-a.; pp. 54—4 

Tfie Survival of Paganism. 25 

Virgin. The western side of the plain is bounded by 
the billy, and now Muslim-peopled, district extending 
to, and beyond, the ancient Thjamis and modem 
K&lamas. This was, of old, the southern frontier of 
the country of the Chaonians," with K6rkyra (Corfu), 
imaginatively identified with the Homeric Scheria where 
dwelt the Phceacians/' lying off its coast -line. And as 
the wandering hero of the Odyssey lands on the Thes- 
protian shore, rXu«i)e X<^i)i' (Sweet Harbour, now Port 
Fanari), the wandering hero of the ^neid lands on the 
Chaonian shore at the Bay of Pal6des (Vutzindr6), near 
the ancient city of BovBpmiov (Butrinto)'." According to 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus," ^neas, landing at Ambracia, 
now Arta, journeyed to Dodona, while his son Anchises 
sailed on with the fleet to Buthrotum, where £neas 
rejoined them. But whether journeying up from Buth- 
rotum, as in the epic of Virgil, or down towards Buth- 
rotum from Dodona, as in the legend of Dionysius, the 
scene of the pathetic interview of ^neas with Andr6- 
rnach^, the widow of Hector, may with equal reason be 
placed on the banks of the Thj^amis, near the confluence 
of the stream now called the Kremnitza. And the ruins 
called Falaea Venetia, and the town of Philiates — which 
seems to preserve a reminiscence of the name — we may 
identify with the New Ilion, said to have been founded 
by Hellenus, and of which the actual existence is attested 
by Livy, and the Tables of Peutinger." 

5. But now — after this round through the mountains 
of Dodona, down by the Ach^ron-Gurli to the sea, and 
np by the Th^amis-Kilamas, and the New Ilion to 
loinnina again — let me describe what lies at our feet as we 
stand here on a ridge of Metzik^li. The great strath of 
lo^jinina was of old the country of the Molossians, and, 

■3 B<(p6uKH li Xiiavcc iieaalXnrni(.— ThUCYD^ it 124. 

'^ SeKViB.VK.v.s.,Kleiru^ckii/UM,\\.; DieHonterisihtn Fhaakfn^und 
die Jmein dtr Seligen. 
»7 ^n. iii. 


Historical Itilroduction. 

at a still earlier period, the many -peopled, flock- and -herd- 
covered, harvest -a bounding land of HcUopia, described 
by Hesiod*" — the original Hellas itself, according to 
Aristotle^' — the country of the primitive Selli, EUi, 
Hellenes, and Greeks.*^ South-eastward, it bends to Arta 
and the Ambracian Gulf, on one side of which is the 
ancient Nicopolis and modern Prtveza; and on the other, 
the promontory- of Actium ; aod outside of the gulf is the 
gleaming Ionian Sea, with its islands of Levcddia, and 
beyond it, on the far horizon, Kephalonia. The town of 
loannina probably owes its origin to refugees from 
Dodona, after its destruction by the Goths, under Totila, 
in the sixth century C55i) ; and its name it certainly owes 
to St. John the Baptist, whom its founders chose as their 
patron. Its bishops sat at the Council of Constantinopls 
in 879 ; it was taken in 1181 by the Norman Behemond, 
the bastard of the great Robert Guiscard ; and in 1431 it 
surrendered to the Turks. On the inland slope of a high 
and rocky promontory is the walled upper quarter of tha 
city ; and this magnificently picturesque promontory, 
crowned formerlj' by the Castle of the ' Lion of loSnnina,' 
Ali PashS, now bears at its highest edge his Tomb (1822), 
beside the marble-columned mosque of Arslan Aga. 
Having ever before my eyes, in the nunnery at loannina 
where I lodged, the stupendous wall of Metzikdi on the 
other side of the lake, much had my curiosity been ex- 
cited to see what was at the back of it — Zag6rie," whence 
come many of our Epirote songs. And at length, having 
gained the summit of Met^ikCli, in our shooting expedition, 
the French Consul and I looked down on a vast amphi- 
theatre of forested mountains, descending to a bottom at 

"An. Schol, in Soph. Trachin. nf>9. 

"• Mitterol, i. 14. But according 10 Homer the nam* of Hellenes 
was originAlly applied lo the inhabiianis of Southern Thes»aiy, and m 
the Phiotide (//. ii. <SS j). Homer himself, as is well known, calls tbtt 1 
Greeks Arhxans, ns these were, in his time, the most numerous of dl ■ 
the Hellenic tribes. (//. ii. 6S4 : ik. 141 ; OJ. iii. 2J1.) 

'■ For a discussion of the derivations and roeaninp of these names, 
sec MauRv, f(tUgiens dt la Grtcfonliqu^, t L, pp. 38, J9, text and notes, 

'i A Slav name, meaning ' Behind the MounUin.' 



The Survival of Paganism. 2 7 

a profound depth, with a midway zone of scattered 
villages, and with, apparently, no means of communica- 
ticMi with the outer world save over the trackless mountain 
sammits. A northern realization this out-of-the-world 
world seemed to be of the Happy Valley of Rasselas, 
Prince of Abyssinia. 

Sub-section II.— Thessaly. 

I. From the plain of lodnnina, the land, as we have 
seen, of Hellopia, and the primitive country of the 
Hellenes, it is a long day's (more commonly a day and a 
half s) journey up the hills adjoining Metzik6li; down their 
long and steep descents; along a succession of glens; 
through their meandering streams times without number ; 
then again up long winding ascents ; and so across the 
broad mountain-spine of Pindus. Vlach Shepherdesses 
are among the most prominent figures in the Erotic and 
Humouristic sections of the following Songs; and a word, 
at least, may be said, in passing, of the Capital of the 
scattered communities of the Cis-Danubian Roumanians.^^ 

«4 From the third (270) to the thirteenth century (1222) we 
have no direct historical evidence of the existence, in Roumania, of 
Roumanians. Worse still — at the former date they are mentioned 
only as being rtmoved from Roumania. Whence had they come, 
when, at the latter date, we find again, in Roumania, Roumanians ? 
For more than a hundred years now this question as to the origin 
of the Roumanians has been debated ; and among the chief inves- 
tigators of the problem may be named Thunmann (1774), Sulzer 
{1781), Engcl (1794), R6sler (1871), Pic (1880), and Slavici (1881). 
According to one theory — that, it must be admitted, of the majority of 
Aese Gennan writers — the Roumanians did actually disappear from 
Roumania, emigrating thence when Aurelian created his Cis-Danubian 
Dacia (270-75) ; and immigrating thither only shortly before we have 
documentary evidence of them again in Roumania (1222}. According 
to Uie other theory — that, naturally, of the Roumanians themselves 
—there was never a general immigration from Trans-Danubian Dacia, 
notwithstanding the orders of Aurelian ; and hence, the origin of the 
Roumanians in Roumania is to be traced to no other general immi- 
gration than that of the infinitas capias of colonists ex toto orbe 
under Trajan (106). The Roumanians have in them not improbably 
some strains, at least, of the blood of the ancient Thracians and 
Dadans. See behw (p. 33), with respect to the connections of the 
Thracians with the Trojans, and possibly with the Teutons. 

This is Mezzovo, the surpassingly picturesque Metropolis 
of the Mountains. It was founded by Vlach shepherds, 
who, in the sixteenth century, escaping from Turkish 
tyranny in the plains of Thessaly — no longer a semi- 
independent MeyaXi] hXayia, Great Wallachia — sought 
here to preserve their freedom. And from M6zzovo it is 
but two hours — first down a steep descent, and then up a 
long ascent to the knife-like summit, neck, or 'yoke,' — 
amazingly narrow, considering that it has been the gate of 
so many invading hordes and armies^^ passing from 
Thessaly into Itlyria, or from Illyria into Thessaly — the 
Zygos from which, upwards of 5,000 feet above the sea, 
we look down on the first of the three great divisions of 
Thessaly, the long and ever-widening glen of the Penei6s, 
and see afar, over the eastern plain, the summits of 
Olympus — of old, the human birthplace, and divine home 
of the Olympian Gods ; and, in our days, the chief fortress 
of Freedom, and cradle of Folk-song in Northern Greece. 
2, Through enchanting forest -glades, we ride down 
the glen of the Peneios to those wonderful cliffs, Msiimpa 
Aidoi, on which the Meltora Monasteries are perched — 
those cliffs which form one side of the gate into the 
plains of Thessaly, and the beauty, yet wonder and terror, 
of which have, in our Folk-songs, attached to one of them, 
the mountain-rock of Varlaam (Bovi^i roC BapXafiJj), a. 
story of a nine-headed Drakos, I passed the night at the 
Turkish guard-house of Krea-Vrissi <Cold Fountain), also 
mentioned in our Songs. And next day, when, after being 
hauled up 300 feet through the air to the cloisters of the 
Great Mei^oron, ! considered the position of these Monas- 
teries, it struck me as a rather remarkable fact that between 
the ruined and deserted Sanctuaries of Greek Paganism 
— between Dodona and Olympus, and between Olympus 
and Samothrace — there should have chanced to be es- 
tablished the chief, though now declining. Sanctuaries of 
Greek Christianism — between Dodona and Olympus the 

'^ Among others, that of Cesar, after his failure apinst Pompey 
at Dyrracbium, and before his victory nt Pharsalia, 48 ac 


Tlie Survival of Paganism. 29 

Mid-air Monasteries of the Met^ora Cliffs, and between 
Olympus and Samothrace the Hermitage Convents of the 
Holy Mountain. Nor remarkable only seemed this fact, 
but instructive the relations thus observed. For Historical 
Monuments are the telephones and phonographs by which 
communities of men transmit their voices to their fellows 
across the abysses of Time. These voices, however, need 
generally to be somehow magnified, so that we may hear 
them. Nothing magnifies like contrast. Hence, noting 
the topographical relations of these Met^ora Monasteries 
— ^between Dodona and Olympus — did make their voices 
audible. These Mid-air Monasteries are materialized 
utterances of social despair and diseased aspiration. 
What else could have urged men to the deadly perils of 
scaling their inaccessible precipices — the prodigious 
labours of crowning their untrodden summits with domed 
and pillared churches, and galleried and cloistered con- 
vents ? And when we turn for verification of what we 
seem to have heard to the historical facts of the time, and 
the circumstances of the building in mid-air and peopling 
of these Monasteries, we gain fullest assurance that we 
have not misheard their voices.*® 

3. As we round the eastern horn, 1,000 feet high, of the 
crescent-shaped range of the precipices on which the 
Convents are perched, and come to the village of Kala- 

** A manuscript, discovered and translated by M. Heuzey {^ Les 
Couvents des MeUoreSy Revue Archkologique^ March, 1864), gives us 
an invaluable detailed account of the foundation of these Monasteries, 
and particularly of that of the great Met^oron, in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and of their history up to the middle of the sixteenth century. 
Now, in its political anarchy and social misery, the fourteenth century, 
the century of the foundation of these Monasteries, was to South- 
eastern Europe what the eighth century had been to North-western 
Enrope. For it was the century of the Latin Kingdoms, Principalities, 
and Duchies, into which the Greek Empire had been partitioned ; the 
century of the encroaching Slav Empire of Stephen Dushan (1350) 
on one side; and on the other, of tbe extending Ottoman Empire 
of Morad I. (1360), presently to be established at Adrianople (1362) 
and soon at Thessalonica (1372). And hunted and harried the Greeks 
also now were by those sea-and-land-robbers— >pirates and brigands — 
the vermin ever bred by political anarchy. 


Historical Introduction. 

baka,^ a magnificent view suddenly opens of the vast 
Plains of Thessaly, through which the Salemvria, or 
Peneios, henceforward flovra till it reaches the Olympian 
defile of Tempe. A perfectly flat, unbroken, prairie-like 
expanse of com and pasture-land is the Western or 
Upper Plain of Thessaly ; and at the extremity of a ridge 
that juts into the plain from the Cambunian Hills, that 
are its northern boundary', one descries the ancient castle 
and town of Trikka (TpUKo), which the Byzantines, 
changing a name which had ceased to have significance 
into one that had significance, turned into Tnkala, the 
'Thrice beautiful.'"^ The Plain of Trikala, or of Upper 
Thessaly, is separated by a tow ridge of hills from the Plain 
of Lower Thessaly, or of Larissa, which stands in the mid- 
die of the prairie on the flat southern bank of the Penei6s. 
Historic and song-famed Tirnovo is to the north ; historic 
and song-famed Armyro, Uomoko, and Pharsalia, to the 
south — Pharsalia, the first of the three great battlefields — 
Pharsalia (48), PhiUppi (42), and Actium {31)— of the 
tragic Trilogy of the Roman Civil Wars — the first here 
in Thessaly, the second in Macedonia, the third in Epeiros. 
To the east of Pharsalia, and thus in the south-eastern, 
mountain-encircled corner of Thessaly, was the Phthio- 
tide, the Homeric Helias, the land of the Achteans, the 
kingdom of Achilles. As the western boundary of the 
Thessalian Plains is the range of Pindus, its eastern 
boundary is the range of Pelion, the chief seat of the 
Insurrection of 1S78, in which Mr, Ogle perished — killed, 
or murdered. ** Running down into the Magnesian pro- 

=1 Kalabaka was the scene of Uie bcsung victory {Trans, p. 254) 
and ignored rout of the Greek Invasion of 1854 ; under the name of 
Srii/iH it was the seat of the Bishopric that so long contended with 
the Met^oron for supremacy over the adjoining hennitages and 
monasteries ; and it was identified by Colonel Leake with /Eginion, 
where ihe junction was effected between the forces of Julius Ciesar, 
which had come over tlie Zygos Pass, and those of bis lieutenant 
Domitius before the battle of Pharsalia. 

"* Many similar changes might be instanced in England. 

"i Whether killed 01 murdered was a question debated still with 
extraordinary passion, when I was at Volo at! Christmas, 1S80— 81. 
Some lime before his death I had made the acquaintance of Mr. Ogle 
at the Sclavonic Athens, Raguso. 


The Survival of Paganism. 3 1 

montory, the Pelion range encloses the Pagasxn Gulf, 
whence Jason sailed ; and into which once more will a 
'Golden Fleece' be brought to Volo, the ancient lolcos, 
and future ' Liverpool of Greece.' The northern and 
southern boundaries of the Thessalian Plains arc the two 
great mountain-ribs, as it were, of that mountain-back- 
bone of Greeee, the range of Findus. It is the southern 
mountain range that, in the Western Plain, is the more 
beautiful ; the northern, in the Eastern Plain. The former 
are the mountains of Othrys, and those of Agrapha, so 
often mentioned in our Klephtic Songs; and the beauty 
and grandeur of their mistily blue and serrated wall is, in 
Upper Thessaly, a perpetual enchantment. But in Lower 
Thessaly it is the northern, range that alone attracts our 
eye ; for that, here, is the ' Shining One,' the sublime 
Olympus,^ not an enchantment only, but a religion. 

4. Olympus belongs equally to two modern Provinces, 
to two primitive Peoples, and to two orders of Gods. Its 
vast range extends from the defile of Temp6, which sepa- 
rates it from the maritime range of Ossa and Pt^lion, to 
the defile of the Sarand^poros, which separates it from 
the inland range of the Cambunian Hills. Its south- 
western and landward side belongs to Thessaly, its north- 
eastern and seaward side to Macedonia. On the Lower 
Olympus, towards the defile of Temp^, I spent a week 
with a boar-hunting party ; on the Higher Olympus, to- 
wards the defile of the Sarandiporos, on both its landward 
and seaward sides, and in the adjoining hills, I spent six 
weeks with a brigand-hunting expedition. Most strikingly 
dissimilar I found the aspects of Olympus on its Thessa- 
lian and Macedonian, its landward and seaward sides — 
the home-fields each, of old, of a different race of Men — 
the temple-precincts each of a different order of Gods. 
On its Thessalian side, and especially towards the Saran- 
diporos, Olympus rises in mighty lines, steep and bare, 
from an arid and desolate plain. On its Macedonian side, 
and especially towards Temp^, Olympus, towering over a 

" 'OXtftiroc appears to be derived from Xd/nru. Sec CURTIUS, Grund- 
tiige der Gfiechisc/un Eiymelogie, b. i., s. 231. 


Historical ItUrodiution. 

glorious sea-plain, rises clothed with oak and pine forests, i 
South of the abysmal rent that severs it in two is the.l 
forest of Kallipeuct^, through which the legions of the J 
Consul Philip forced their way, and turned the position * 
of Persevs, King of Macedonia, on the Pierian Plain ; and 
north of that sublimely severing ravine is the Pierian 
Forest, defiling through which, by the pass of Petra, the 
young Scipio again turned tlic position of Persevs, who 
then, retiring before the united Roman forces, suffered at 
Pydna a defeat which incorporated Macedonia in the 
Roman Empire,*' Such are some of the historical 
memories of the Olympian Forests. But, like a Zevs, 
with lower limbs only clothed, Olympus shows a breast of 
which the naked heights hold perennial snows in their 
crevices, and a brow diademed with marble^^ peaks that 
gleam in the empyrean 10,000 feet^ above the sea. 

5. Such is the mountain, or rather the mountain- range 
— the unconqucred home of Freedom, and cradle of Folk- 
song in Northern Greece. But, as I have said, Olympus 
was, of old, the seat of two Races of Men and the sanc- 
tuary of two Orders of Gods. These two Races were on 
its south-western, inland, or Thessalian side, the I'elasgian 
Pcrhsbians ; and on its north-eastern, maritime, and 
Macedonian side, the Thracian Pictians. Thracians and 
Pelasgians — these are the two Races we constantly en- 
counter at the origin of Hellenic history. What part had 
they respectively in the foimation and education of the 
Hellenic tribes, very mixed as these certainly were in the 
sources both of their blood and of their culture? White 
Races were they both, or did one or both belong to 
the Coloured, or ' Turanian,' variety of mankind ? Or, 
if botli Pelasgians and Thracians were White Races, 
were both, or was one, and which of them, related 
to the Aryan Races ? I have elsewhere endeavoured 

" The topographica.! delaiii of this Famous campaign, as given by 
Livv (xliv.), have been admirably worked out by M. Heuzev, Mcnl 

are characteriied as ^(ip>faiitwi. 

" The exact height of Olympus, according to the Admiralty charts, 
is 9,754 feet. 

The Survival of Paganism. 

to show that the Pelasgians were of that earlier, or Archaian 
White Race to which the Ruling Classes of the Egyptian, 
the Chaldean, the Hittite, and all the other First Civilizations 
belonged ;** and tha,t the Thracians were probably the first 
comers of that Aryan irruption which, pouring down 
from the North, rather than, as in the old theory, pouring in 
from the East, absorbed the creeds, and established itself 
in the seats, of the earlier Archaian conquerors of Coloured 
Aborigines.^ I can here only, however, point out that, 
on the Pelasgian side of Olympus, there was a Sanctuary 
of Zevs at a more ancient Dodona f^ a stream flow- 
ing from the gorge of the Saranddporos, to which an 
infernal origin was attributed ; and, at iEdn6, a Sanctuary 
of Hades ; ^^ and that, on the Thracian side of Olympus, 
there were the Sanctuaries of quite another order of 
Gods — the Sanctuaries of Apollo and the Muses, and 
the Tomb of Orphevs.^ The divine Republic of the 

•* See Northern Hellas, Book III., Ch. iv. ^ Ibid, Book V., Ch. ii. 

•* With respect to the theory of a connection between the Thracians 
and the Teutons, I have been favoured by Mr. Karl Blind with the 
following note : The earliest reference, he says, to the Teutonic kinship 
of the Thracians, is that by Jornandes in the sixth century ; after which 
comes a poem by Fischart, the German scholar and satirist of the six- 
teenth century, who claims Orphevs as a German. Next came Voss 
(end of last and beginning of this century), in the Dedication to his 
translation of the Iliad and Odyssey, Wirth, in his Geschichte dcr 
Deutschen (1846), elaborately argues for this kinship. The same view 
was upheld by Wackernagel, and by Jacob Grimm in his Geschichte 
der Deutschen Sprache (1848). Professor Schcetensack published a 
special treatise on the subject, Die Thrakerals Stafnmvdter der Gothen 
(1861}. And Dr. Oskar Montelius, in a treatise published in the 
Nardiske Tidskri/t (1884), endeavours to show that Germanic popula- 
tions dwelt in the Danubian countries in the sixth century B.C. But 
the Trojans would appear to have been of Thracian origin, and hence 
Mr. Blind*S special contribution to the controversy has lain in his 
attempt to prove the Germanic connection of the Trojans. See his 
note in Schliemann's Troja (1884) ; the correspondence, in the 
Academy oi]2Lii. and Feb., 1884 ; and his article in the Leipzig Magazin^ 
1884. Closer, however, probably, was the relation of the Thracian to 
the Greco- Kelto-Italic, than to the Teutonic, stock. 

** Called B6dond in the ancient iColic dialect of the Perhxbians. 
Its site, according to M. Heuzey {Mont Olympe^ p. 62}, was probably 

ear that of the monastery of the Holy Trinity. 

* //. ii. 753. Compare Lucan, Phars,y vi. 375. 

** It is a great pyramidal mound, up which one may ride, in the 

34 Historical Introduction. 

Olympian Gods arose, in fact, from the armed Peace of 
the Olympian Races ; and as we find a temple of Zevs on 
the Thracian side at Dium,^ we find a temple of Apollo 
on the Pelasgian side at Pythion.*® 

Sub-section III.— Macedonia. 

I. The two opposite sides of Pindus — Metzikeli and 
Zygos — were the stations from which we began our 
survey of Epeiros and Thessaly respectively ; and now, 
from the heights of the Castle of the Seven Towers,*^ the 
citadel of Salonfca, we shall begin our survey of Macedonia 
— of the sites of its Sanctuaries and the scenes of its Folk- 
songs. The chief feature of the landscape is 6 tfj/o; 'OXvfirrosy 
the divine Olympus, that magnificently closes in the bay 
of Salonfca — the inner reach of the gulf — and makes it like 
a vast land-locked lake. Olympus, as has been said, belongs 
geographically equally to Thessaly and to Macedonia ; but, 
pictorially, it is incomparably grander as seen from the 
capital of Macedonia, than as seen from the capital of Thes- 
saly. I have, indeed, seen nothing yet to be compared with 
Olympus, as seen from Salonfca. Far overlapping the pro- 
montory, now called Karaburnou, which bounds the bay of 
Salonfca on the east, and where iEneas founded ^neiaf^ 
the line of the Olympian range begins with the sudden cleft 
which marks the defile of Temp^ between Ossa and the root 
of Olympus. From the summit of the cleft the line gradu- 
ally and slightly declines, forming the ridge of the Lower 

sea-plain under Olympus. According to Pausanias the monument 
was a column wiih a marble urn on the top of it (/jV^/., 300). 

■• Its probable site, according to Heuzey, is occupied now by a 
church dedicated to 'A710C ria/oatriceu^, St. Friday ; and I only succeeded 
in bringing away a Christian inscription. 

*® Colonel Leake {^Northern Greece^ vol. iii., p. 341) says that he 
had *not been able to ascertain the existence of any remains' at 
Pythium ; but, in the midst of our brigand-hunting, I was fortunate 
enough to get two or three hours to explore this West-Olympian 
Sanctuary of Apollo. 

^ In Greek, Ivraicv^yiov ; in Turkish, Yedi-Kouleler-KaUssL 

*" DiONYS. Hal., Antiq, Rom., 1. i., c. 50. 

Tlie Survival of Paganism. 35 

Olympus ; and from the end of this lower range there rises 
— to the height, as has been said, of 10,000 feet — the grand 
outline of the many-peaked Higher Olympus. At the sea- 
ward foot of the mountain lies the Pierian plain, the 
original home of the Muses — 

the daughters of Zevs and Mnem6syn£ — of the resplendent 
Sky and Memory. (How profoundly true is this as a 
parentage of the Arts — a mythic statement of the causes 
of Poesy in every one of its forms !) And away to the 
right is the long broken line of the Cambunian Hills — fine, 
but without the grandeur of the Ossa and Pelion range on 
the left. But it is not the grandeur of its form so much 
as the amazing and most poetic variety of its aspects that 
makes Olympus so truly a mountain of the Gods. Some- 
times it appears in the ordinary light of a naked moun- 
tain-mass. More frequently, however, it clothes itself in 
all sorts of ethereal garbs. Now its summits are hid in 
clouds, while its sides and bases are clear ; now its sides 
and bases are shrouded in mist, while its summits are 
divinely bright ; now its peaks, or even its whole mass, is 
glittering in the many-folded silver mantle of its snows ; 
now it is touched with the unspeakably magical lights of 
sunrise or of sunset, or with the ineffable beauty of the 
everlasting poem of Endymion and Sel6n6 ; and now it is 
the splendid and majestic seat of the Sky-god*s [darting 
of his lightnings and hurling of his thunderbolts. 

2. Such are the views of Olympus that greet and 
gratify eye and soul at Salonica. For nearly a year this 
ancient and still populous and many-nationed city — of 
which the name was changed from Thermae to that of 
Thessalonik6 in honour of the sister of Alexander the 
Great — was my headquarters; but never did I return 
from one of my various expeditions, of many weeks each, 
without being delighted anew with the divine and ever- 
varying beauty of Olympus. From Salonica and its 

43 llEsioD, T/:fo/^. 25. 


36 Historical Introduction. 

suburb, Kallamerii, come many of our Songs. Steeply 
the city rises from its wave-washed quay, or more 
accurately, from the Via Mgnatia^ the old Roman road 
from the Adriatic to the iEgean, which here, traversing 
Salonica in its whole length, forms its main street. At 
the eastern end of the street, and at the Kallamerid gate 
of the city, sits, with his primitive sort of lute, an old 
blind Homer, a rhapsodist of these Folk-songs, and gene- 
rally surrounded by a little crowd of listeners. At this 
gate the walls have been in part demolished, in conse- 
quence of a sudden and short fit of Turkish 'improve- 
ments, * which exposed and destroyed many sculptured 
sarcophagi. Save, however, at this eastern gate, and on 
the mdo towards the sea, Salonica is still surrounded by 
towt>n?d and picturesque mediaeval walls, of which the 
8Ul>9tructurrs are of Hellenic, and even Pelasgian anti- 
qvutj\ Onl>' A i^assing allusion can here be made to the 
Hhnin^t uniMimllcled number of great historic events wit- 
l\t**t*t>d by tht?»f» wull* — ahvuj-s apparently retaining the 
?*tt«\i> Kt>ucml line$» howewr variously reconstructed — 
hiM\vrio *crnc» cxttndiny back to the Persian occupation 
wu\Wr Xi^ixr* 1481^ ua\>* At the sea-end of the eastern 
waM^ l>i th^ Wnt^ti^n R>rt, and Turkish prison, known as 
th\* IMvhhIj^ Toxvx^r^ Ami Waiving it, the road along the 
MN^ -?*hs^i^ t Ak^ ow^x in t\^>enty minutes, to the charming 
u\i\H^v^ ^utH^t^ with it* »p{vro(Mriate Greek name, Kalla- 
^^\'^iAv ' l^''^!^u\^^MfciiiM'5!^' Uit owr-toxvtared by the Slav-named 
Mn^^^I v'hvMt^NMvh <^ CvMviuttCtii'm of names singularly 
^\^^\tK^^^ \N<'tW rr^AlKMX^ \Nt' r^c^ now in Macedonia.** 

tx 1\n tH^^ \xyvT^t--h> vHu rtRht. as w>e stand on the Citadel- 
h\ \i|^Kt^ >h*^ tW |^t>N^t 3^>aw^rd r4ain of the Vardar ; the 
\^\x^ w^h^ \\\^^ wHm^IwI by Homer as 'the fairest 
M^NN^m iKm tl^^w^ m alt tK^ earth,*** and of which the 
WxN^\v^ix ^VK^ \ l^55^h^< nanY^.''^^, Axius«=^ Axe ot Esk, 
H x^^v >M tht^ w^^^trt^uk \Nf names that testify to an early 

♦> V\v>tr t » > n<^ W>^Y^yT. t>»^ n*w>e <»C na ii^Uyk) tcmit or viQace is 
\ >»vV, >N>^*V t><< ty«fH?!j^tHN^ 1^ l^tilRHtian, as in the case of Ncodi^ 

The Survival of Paganism. 37 

Keltic occupation of Macedonia and Thrace. The 
term Macedonia I here use with the wide meaning given 
to it by later usage. But originally, Macedonia was but 
the country west of the Axius, and up to that mountain- 
range of Scardus which is a continuation of the great 
chain of Pindus. Here, in great upland plains, surrounded 
by wild and rocky mountains, and in that particularly of 
Pelag6nia, now Monastir, 1,500 feet above the sea, was 
the Cradle of the Macedonian Monarchy.*^ Extending 
seaward, its capital was established at Edessa — now, 
because of its watersy called Vodhcna by the Slavs — ^with 
the upland plain of Emdthia behind it, and under, and 
before it, the sea-plain in which the new capital of Pella 
was founded by Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. 
A semicircular sweep of hills bounds this plain to the 
south ; and the Bdrrhoea (Vdrria) of St. Paul is among the 
towns built on their declivities. A stalagmitic cavern at 
the foot of the hills between V^rria and Niaousta — the 
ancient Kition — ^with a fountain near it, and with a glorious 
view over the broad plain to Pella, may be identified, 
by a passage in Pliny,*® with the cave to which Aristotle 
often retired with his young pupil, Alexander. It is 
called PalaO'Sottros, having been made into a sort of 
church. Its memories, I venture to say, make it worthy of 
a nobler consecration. Behind these hills, with this most 
angust and sacred cave in their northern face, is the valley 
of the Haliacmon. And at iEan6 we enter the region, 
abeady described, of the Holy Places of Mount Olympus. 
4. Facing the Olympus range, and forming the eastern 
side of the gulf of Salonica, is the Chalcidic Peninsula, 

^ In Thrace these names are particularly numerous : Sadoc, Spara- 
doCj Medoc, Amadoc, Olorus, Lutarius, Leonorius, Cormontorius, Lom- 
nonus, Luarius, Cavanis, Bithocus or Bituitus. See Renan, Sf, Paui^ 
p. 136 and n. ; and Heuzev, Miss, de Mac.y pp. 149 and fig. The origin 
of many of these names, however, may date only from the later Keltic 
Kingdoms established ^ the Gauls in their eastern migration after the 
d«iui of Alexander the Great. 

47 See Delacoulonche, Mhm. snr U Berceau de la Puissance nKue- 
donienne^ Arch, des Missions^ i Serie, t viii., 1858. 

48 Hist. Aat. xxxi. 20. See the Memoir of M. DelacOULONCHE, 
just cited (p. 704). 


Historical Introduction. 

with its tliree long finger-like promontories. Of these, 
the westernmost is the promontory of Cassandra, of which 
the villages were destroyed, and their inhabitants put to 
the sword, in consequence of their having naturally, but 
too rashly, declared in favour of the Greek Revolution of 
1821. The easternmost promontory is the ridge, soine 
forty miles long, and four or five broad, of the "Ayiov 
'Opo';, the Holy Mountain, cut across at its root by the 
Canal of Xerxes, and ending in the sublime marble peak 
that rises precipitously from the sea to the height of be- 
tween 6,000 and 7,000 feet — the peak of the Thukydidean 
'Airrf, the Herodotean "Adax;, the Homeric peak on which 
H^r6 rested on her flight from Olympus to Lemnos." 
But different are its associations now. Not a living 
creature of Eve's unholy sex — save inevitable insects, 
particularly of the carnivorous tribes — is allowed to 
set foot on Holy Athos. For since the sixth century, 
Athos has been the great pilgrim-visited Sanctuary 
of Greek, or Eastern Christendom — indeed, the first' 
Convents here are said to have been founded by thel 
Empress Helena, the mother of Constantine the Greats- 
in the beginning of the fourth century- During the so-J 
called ' Middle Ages,"" there were founded on the Hoi; 
Mountain a score of Monasteries. Nowhere in the world 
is there a set of buildings to be compared with them in the 
number of their remarkable characteristics — the picturesque 
grandeur of their sites ; the antiquity of their older walls, 
which average, I suppose, some Soo years; the princely 
spaciousness of their quadrangles, with gorgeously frescoed 
churches in their midst ; the priceless treasures of these 
churches, and of the convent-libraries; and, above all, the 
yet breathing Christian Medieval life of their inhabitants. 
These Monasteries, however, as communities numbering 
some of them, even still, 300 monks or more, are but oa, 



*9 Possibly [he legend may have some connection wiih the tradi-l 
tional occupation of ihis proroontory of Athos by ihc Pclasgia; 
and worshippers of HM. See aiove, p. 23, and n. 8. 

s" S«e Af/ea', p. 47, n. 7. 

The Survival of Paganism. 39 

a lower grade of ascetic sainthood. Besides the score of 
Monasteries, there are a great number of Sketes, ^A<TKfr\- 
nfpia, or Xicr/ruL, connected with the Convents, as the 
Halls at Oxford with the Colleges. The largest collection 
of these ascetic households is in umbrageous and gloriously 
picturesque ravines, fitly dedicated of old to Nereids and 
to Nymphs. But there is a higher degree still of saint- 
hood. In the corries, on the crags, and in the caves, the 
most inaccessible all round the seaward face of Athos — 
one of the caves to which I climbed could be made utterly 
inaccessible by the removal of a narrow plank — live, in 
solitary seclusion, an uncounted number of pre-eminently 
saintly hermits. And across the sea these miserable 
wretches look unashamed on the divine home of the 
Olympian Gods. 

5. On the other side of Holy Athos one sees, rising sheer 
some 6,000 feet out of the eastern sea, the Island- 
Sanctuary of still elder Gods, the Gods of Samothrace. 
But between us and it is the island of Thasos, an ancient 
seat of Phoenician Civilization ; in the comer of the main- 
land, the sacred birthplace of Aristotle, Srdyeipo^;, now 
Isvor ;" and on the coast opposite Thasos, Abdera also of 
philosophic fame. I chance to be the only Englishman 
who has visited and explored Samothrace; but here I 
need only briefly recall what I have elsewhere fully de- 
scribed, or pointed out*^ — the supreme beauty and sub- 
limity of this volcanic, and often earthquake-rent island- 
mountain ; the antiquity of its deluge-traditions, and of 
its consecration as a Sanctuary of the Gods of the Under- 
world; the association and identification of the Kdbeiri 
with these Gods of Samothrace — the Kdbeiri who, as I 
have endeavoured to show, were originally the divinized 
discoverers of, and workers in iron, and hence institutors 
of the Iron Age — 

Opfl'iKtris Si ^dfioio wpi<r9tvus irdXifjrai, 

5> Described in a letter of mine to the Times, 21st April, 1881. 
5» Contemporary Review, May, 1882. 

Historical Introduction. 

Expert at the Forge 
Fire-powerful inhabitants of Tiuaciar Samos p 
the significance of the site of the Temple-city of Samo- 
thrace, and grandeur of its ruins, dating from the earliest 
age of the Pelasgian immigration to the noblest period of 
Greek art ; and the renown of the Mysteries of the 
K&beiri which brought to Samothrace pilgrims the most 
celebrated — here, that Prince of Macedonia and Princess 
of Epeiros, who were the parents of Alexander the Great, 
first fell in love with each other** — and which made it, 
at length, the one common Sanctuary of the Greco-Roman 
world. But what it is here chiefly important for us to 
note is the extraordinary continuity, to this day, in Mace- 
donia, of Hellenic custom, sentiment, and thought, in 
connection with Samothrace. The great Festival of 
Initiation into the Mysteries of the Kibetri seems to have 
been held about the 22nd of the modern Greek July, and 
the beginning of our August." And at this very season 
pilgrims still resort to Samothrace from all the neighbour- 
ing coasts and islands ; camping out in tents and huts In 
the woods; curing themselves of all manner of diseases 
in the miraculous hot sulphur-water ; returning thanks 
still to the Gods of the old Greek Pantheon, though under 
new Christian names ; and really keeping still the Feast 
of the Kdbeiri, though calling it that of the ' Twelve 
Apostles." And still the characteristic Songs of Samo- 
thrace are about Gods of the Underworld — about Charon, 
who is really a Kabeirian God; though, in name, he 
appears to be connected with the Egyptian Horus,^ And 
most curious, perhaps, of all — not only is an ancient round 
church at Salonica, built by Constantine, and now the 
mosque of Sultan Osman, said to be on the site of a 

S3 NoNNUS, Dionys. xiv, 33, xxin. 193 ; and see the other aulhoritica I 
quoted in ihe above-cited article, pp. 847—8. 

M Plut.. Alar. z. 

ss See CONZE, Arcktohi-isdit VnUrnieliiiiit;en an/ SamoUiraktf 
b. ii., s. 39. 

s* See aM-i", p. u.l 

The Survive of Paganism. 41 

Temple of the Kibeiri— but, in a Folk-song of Salonfca," 
there appears, as already noted," to be a distinct reminis- 
cence of the Kibeiri themselves in the rpet? XToix^ia tov 
Kovfiov who watch the flocks of a Macedonian shepherd. 

When, OD the steep side of Metzik^li, our eye searched 
for the localities of the origin, and of the scenes, of the 
modem Folk-songs of Epeiros, it found them all in the 
moontaiDSof the site and environs of the ancient Oracle 
ci Dodona, and Sanctuaries of Zevs, Di6ng, and Hades ; 
and similar has been the result of inquiry with reference 
to the localities of the Folk-songs of Thessaly and of 
UacedoDta. Besides this curious coincidence of the chief 
scenes of modern Folk-songs in Northern Greece with 
the chief sites of ancient Sanctuaries in Northern Hellas, 
we have found that these Pagan Sanctuaries have not 
only been for ages mined and deserted, but that their 
sites have been all overbuilt with Christian churches ; 
nay, more; we have found that now there stands, and 
has visibly stood for a thousand years, between the mined 
and deserted Sanctuaries of Samothrace and Olympus, 
the Holy Mountain, the great Sanctuary of Greek 
Christendom, and for half that period, between Olympus 
and Dodona, the chief offshoot of this Christian Sanctuary-, 
the Convents of the Met6ora Cliffs. But the most striking 
characteristic of the modem Folk-songs of which the 
scenes are thus identical with the sites of the Ancient 
Sanctuaries we have found to be their almost unalloyed 
Paganism. Surely, then, these topographical relations 
should not only bring home to us that fact of the unbroken 
continuity of Paganism, in all its essential characteristics, 
from the Classic to the Modem Period — that fact of the 
survival of Paganism which was stated in our First 
Section; hut should make, at the same time, visible, as 
it were, before us, the fact of the domination of Chris- 
tianity for nearly 2,000 years ; and so, should enable us, 
perhaps, in some degree, not only to recognise, but to 
« Trans, p. 57. s^ Above, p. 10. 

42 Historical Introduction. 

realize the wonder and interest of this fact of the survival 
of Paganism — the wonder and interest of the revelation 
made to us, not only, though perhaps most strikingly, 
by Greek Folk-lore, but by Aryan Folk-lore generally — 
the revelation in popular life of a vast and profound 
layer of untouched Paganism, similar, in its general 
sentiment, if not in its special beliefs, to the prevalent 
Paganism of the Higher Culture. And now — the wonder 
and interest of the Survival of Paganism having, I trust, 
been sufficiently brought home — I would proceed to what I 
said, in concluding our First Section, would be our ultimate 
task, the investigation of the Cause of the Survival of 
Paganism. Those readers who do not care for such 
investigations — those readers to whom — slightly to alter 
the well-known lines — 

A primrose by the river's brim 
A simple primrose is, 
And it is nothing more — 

may now conclude their perusal of this Historical Intro- 
duction. But those readers to whom facts are of interest 
only in their relation to ideas — in their relation to those 
larger facts which are their causes — such readers may, 
perhaps, be willing to follow me a little further. 



1 . Duly recognise this fact of the general Paganism, to this 
day, of Folk-belief, as evidenced by its most genuine 
expressions, and our ordinary histories of Religion, and 
particularly of Christianity, will be seen to be merely 
histories of religious thinkers who exercised but a more 
or less partial, and more or less passing influence on the 
great mass of the people. We have, at length, recognised 
that a true histor>' of Polity is something very different 
from what it was till ver>' recently— a history of political 
actors— kings, statesmen, and generals. But we have not 
yet recognised that a true historv- of Religion is something 

The Survival of Paganis7n. 43 

very different from what it is still — a history of prophets, 
popes, and heresiarchs. Great, however, though the 
effect of a Religious Revolution may be on Literature and 
Art, its effect on the essential contents of Folk-belief may 
be almost nil. And the immensely important historical 
fact revealed by study of the Folk-lore and Folk-life of 
the Christian Peoples is, that there is such a discrepancy 
between nominal and actual Behef and Conduct as is — not 
unparalleled, perhaps — but extraordinarily exceptional 
in the whole history of mankind. The very basis of the 
whole system of professed Christian Belief is belief in 
Hell. Without the support of this infernal crypt, the 
Christian Church, with its every pillar of doctrine, falls 
sheer into the chaotic ruin of utter unreason. Yet, as the 
study of Folk-lore, and every other mode of experimental 
inquiry, shows, only sporadically and spasmodically have 
the masses of the so-called Christian peoples really 
believed in the Christian Hell, or really, therefore, 
believed in that ' Gospel ' of popular and historic 
Christianity which has no meaning without belief in 
Hell. And similarly is it with regard to Conduct. Just 
as the most characteristic of the moral prescriptions of 
Islam is abstinence from Wine, the most characteristic of 
the moral prescriptions of Christianity is abstinence from 
Women, or, at least, strict limitation of sexual relations to 
but one only of the other sex, and perpetuation of these 
relations for the lifetime of the two parties. Subordinate 
to this is every other moral prescription of Christianity. 
And yet, here again, the study of Folk-lore, and every other 
mode of experimental inquiry, shows that the most charac- 
teristic of the moral prescriptions of Christianity is as 
little obeyed as is the most indispensable of its dogmatic 
assumptions believed. Monogamy denotes only the con- 
ditions under which the State recognises cohabitation, not 
by any means — though this appears often to be assumed 
even by philosophic writers — that there are no sexual 
relations save under these statutory conditions. With 
partial exceptions in certain Protestant countries, the 


Historical Introduction. 

domination of the Christian Creed and Christian Code 
has effected almost as little change in the essential 
religious beliefs, and actual sexual relations of the Ar^'an 
peoples of Europe,' as is effected in the social customs of 
Asiatic peoples by the domination of a new Dynasty. But 
the historj- of saluted Dynasties is not the history of 
Polity ; nor is the historj' of professed Creeds the history 
of Religion. 

2. Not only, however, is there beneath all our professions 
of Christian Belief and Conduct a widespread survival of 
Paganism in all its essential characteristics — its feeling of 
oneness with Nature, and mjthic personalizing of its pheno- 
mena; its unconsciousness of Sin in sexual love, and un- 
belief in a future state of Rewards and Punishments ; and 
its feeling of Family kinship, and patriotic devotion to 
the Fatherland — not only is there such a survival, but in 
no way, perhaps, can, at least, the literary side of 
the Modern Revolution be better characterized than as a 
rcvit^al of Paganism. That great literary movement, the 
origin of which will be for ever associated with the names 
of Macpherson and of Rousseau,' is more vaguely and 
vulgarly referred to as a ' return to Nature,' But if 
we duly study the, works of the greater poets of the 
Modern Revolution — and especially of Burns, who, as I 
have elsewhere endeavoured to show,^ was ' the first to 
give, though in fragmentarvform, full, forceful, and poetic 
expression to all the moods of what we distinguish as the 

' DEMOSTHlfNES, in the following sentence, accuralely describes 
these Tclalions, not only as they were in hia own day, but as. notwiih- 
sUndine the hypocrisies of Christianity. Ihey still are : Tac 'Tniprrc 

tXopiv ijSdwjj tviia, rdc If (raUonlc rijc Kaffifiipnv Otpantias Tov mi^TMC, 

' Between 1759 and 1762 RoussEAU completed and published the 
iWfw Hdmse, Social Contnui, and Emilim; it was in these very years 
that Macpherson published his Fragments 0/ Gaelic Poetry, and 
Fitigal, an Ancitnl Epic Poem ; and the Poems of the Badenoeh 
Highlander and Aberdeen Graduate excited a European enthusiasm 
no less great than that excited by the Romances of his great contem- 
porary of the Genevan Lake and Monimorency Woods. 

3 Mac^krrsen, Burns, and Scott, in their Retiilion to the Moiiern 
Revolution {Frasci's Magasinc, April, 1880). 

The Survival of Paganism. 45 

Modem Spirit '* — we shall find that what is really meant 
by the vague phrase * return to Nature/ would be more 
clearly defined as a revival of Paganism in all its essential 
characteristics. Notwithstanding, however, a revival, as 
well as survival, of Paganism in sentiment and in belief; 
and notwithstanding that the facts of sexual relations are 
practically unchanged among the European as well 
as the Indian Aryans ; yet overthrown ancient Paganism 
was in all its institutions and sanctuaries, and with 
Christianity a new world unquestionably arose. A 
problem thus presents itself of the highest historical 
importance — a problem which may be thus stated: 
How came it that ancient Paganism was overthrown 
in all its institutions and sanctuaries, and that a new 
world arose with Christianity; and yet that, notwith- 
standing the domination of Christianity for nearly 2000 
yearSy Paganism, in all its most essential character- 
istics, still flourishes in the most genuine expressions of 
popular sentiment and belief; nor only has thus survived 
in Folk-lore, but has everywhere, for more than a century 
now, been manifestly reviving in Literature? Such, 
stated in detail, is that question which we have now to 
consider with respect to the Cause of the Survival of 

3. But with reference more particularly to the first 
clause of our problem — What were the causes of the over- 
throw of ancient Paganism? — a preliminary question 
arises : Did that Era of the birth of Jesus, proposed by 
the Roman Abbot of the barbaric court of Theodoric, the 
Ostrogoth, at Ravenna (525) — Dionysius Exiguus, Denis 
le Petit — really separate the time before from the time 
after it in any such decisive and general way as has been 
supposed since the adoption of this Era in the darkest of 
the dark ages ? Professor Freeman, in the Rede Lecture 
of 1872,* implicitly put this Era aside in insisting on a 

4 Fraset^s Magazine y April, 1880, p. 523. 

5 Published in his Comparative Politics^ 1873. 

46 Historical Introduction. 

Unity of History in which there is no snch thing as 
• ancient ' and ' modern.' The cause, however, to which 
Professor Freeman attributes the origin of the distinc- 
tion which he rejects is a very minor one compared 
with that which a more philosophic outlook on History 
would have shown to be the true cause, namely, the 
supreme importance attributed, and necessarily attri- 
buted, by the Christian faith to the Era of that con- 
ception at Nazareth, and birth at Bethlehem, fondly 
imagined to be events in the Incarnation of the Creator of] 
the Universe. And Professor Freeman's notion of the 
' Unity of History,' is almost as false as that notion of dis- 
unity which he attacks. Because there is no really trenchant 
division between the Classical Period and that which 
succeeded it, Professor Freeman insists on our 'casting 
away all distinctions between ancient and modern ;' and 
because the conquests, the laws, and the language of 
Rome have immensely influenced a certain age of Western 
development, he insists further on the ' absolute identity 
of Roman History with Universal History.'" But in the 
spring of the same year (1873), in the autumn of which 
this Rede Lecture was given to the world in book-form, I 
published another theory of the ' Unity of History" — a 
theory worked out under the influence of Comte. of Hegel, 
and of Hume— the latter not only the true Father of the 
Scottish School of Philosophy, but the true Founder of 
the European, as distinguished from the Syrian Philosophy 
of History ; a theory which, so far as it differs from the 
theories of the thinkers just mentioned, is based, philoso- 
phically, on a new generalization of the conception of Law 
— the Principle of Co-existence — and historically on the 
discovery of a great European-Asian Revolution which, 
whild it trenchantly divides ' ancient ' from ' modem ' 
history, unites, at the same time, the histories of Europe 

* I'rofcssor Freeman's recent article on Scmt XfgUctrtI Periods ef 
Hiili»ry, in the ConUmforiny Krt-irw, May, 1884, seems to ' ' ■ 
his notion) of the ' Unity of History' have been neither con 
developed lince his slntement nf ihem a doicn yean ago. 



The Survival of Paganism. 47 

and Asia as at once correlative, and reciprocally influenc- 
ing developments; a theory which connects this discovered 
feet of the General Revolution of the Sixth Century B.C. 
with an Ultimate Law of Thought, more or less clearly, 
and more or less generally stated by thinkers so different 
as Scottish Pyschologists, Hegelian Transcendentalists, 
and Spencerian Evolutionists ; and a theory which, in 
like manner, connects its profounder historical causes — 
Economic and Racial Conditions — with the fundamental 
principles of the New Physio-psychology.^ Ignored, and 
— so for as it has been in the power of able Editors and 
others — ^suppressed as this theory has as yet been, I 
venture to think that the results obtained in the course of 
twenty long years spent in the verification of it justify 
me in predicting that it will, in the future, be the basis of 
all scientific histories of Civilization. 

4. The monkish Era of the birth, or rather, of the con- 
ception^ of Jesus, does not separate the times before from 

7 See the New Philosophy of History prefixed as an Introduction 
to In the Momin^land, of which the second edition was published 
wider the title Ists and Osiris; see also The New Theory of History 
and the Critics of * Pilgrim-Memories^ and New Principles of a 
History of Civilization^ prefixed to the third'edition of Pilgrim- 
Memories, Besides these general statements of my Theory of 
European-Asian Civilization, more special statements of branches of 
my "Theory will be found in Isis and Osiris^ Pil^m^ Memories j and 
Europe and Asia^ and with respect, more particularly, to religious 
and philosophic development in the two first, and to economic and 
political development in the last And already in 1869, in that specisd 
study of the Sixth Century A.C, of which some results were given in 
my Essay on Arthurian Localities^ those five great half-millennial 
Periods of European-Asian Civilization, which are constituted by five 
great Epochs of synchronous revolutionary events — the Sixth Century 
B.C; the First Century a.c.; the Sixth Century A.C. ; the Eleventh ; 
and the Sixteenth — these Periods had already, in 1869,* been stated; 
and a protest had been entered against that darkening of History 
which arises from lumping together the thousand years from the Sixth 
to die Sixteenth Century, and confusing under the single name of 
' The Middle Ages,' two utterly different naif-millennial Periods. 

^ The Era of Dionysius began nine months before the birth of Jesus, 
and the Incarnation being the great event that determined the Era, 
Christian Chronologists were much exercised by the knotty question, 
Whether they should date from the conception or from the birth ? 


ffisiorieal Iniroductwn. 

the times after it, as different Ages. The combined 
results of a vast variety of historical researches show 
that it is not the centar,' of Christ, but the sixth century be- 
fore Christ, that truly divides the Ancient from the Modern 
CK'ilizations. For the sixth century before Christ was 
the century of Confucius, in China ; of Buddha, in India ; 
of CjTus the Great and the New Zoroastrianism, in 
Persia; of the Babylonian Captivity {5S8 — 536), the so- 
called Second Isaiah, and the triumph of Jahvehism, in 
Judsa ; of Psammetichus, its last Pharaoh, and of the 
worship of Isis and Horns, the divine Mother and Child, 
rather than of ' Our Father,' Osiris, in Egypt; of Thaleg, 
the Father of Philosophy, of Pj'thagoras and Xcno- 
phanes. the Fathers also of religious and ethical Reform, 
and of Sappho and Alkaios, the first of the new subjec- 
tive and IjTic school of Poetry, in Greece ; and finally, in 
this rapid indication of its greater synchronisms, it was 
the century of those Political Changes from Monarchies 
to Republics which were but the outward sign and seal of 
far profounder Economic Changes both in Greece and at 
Rome.' And of the events of this General Revolution of 
the Si.Kth Century b.c., the most profound, but also the 
most powerful, as historic causes, were these Economic 
Changes. For they resulted in the destruction of the 
economic system of Primitive Socialism, and the initiation 
of that separation of Labour and Capital which distin- 
guishes our present system of Transitional Individualism. 
And having this result in Europe, these Economic 
Changes effected, for the first time, a profound differentia- 

« The dates of the birth oT Confucius vary only between 530 and 

iji ac. As to the date of Buddha, see the Academy of ist March, 

18S4, in which Professor Max Miilier gives new proofs of the da.te of 

Usa«aihbeing477— S B.C; and compare Mr. M tiller's discussion of (he 

rdaie ofChandr»gnpta.thebasisof Indian Chronology, in his /^(^to>y^ 

[■iSitMK^ LUtraturt, pp. 24: — 3001 As to the other synchronisms, see 

tSl>ii:iaEL, Afni/a, b. i. ; EwalD. Z>iV Propluten da Alltn Bundes, 

h, ii.. and G0U>Z1EHER, Mylhoh^ among the Hebrtr^i; SHARPE, 

E^fftum Mytkohgy; ZkLI.CR, PrtMcr.iJii: PhUotofihy, First Period; 

CttOTK, Hktffj ^ Grttft, vol. ii^ p. 505 n., and F. oe CoULamces, 

The Survive of Paganism. 49 

tion between Asiatic and European Civilization — an eco- 
nomic differentiation which I have been, I believe, the 
first to point out as the profoundest fact and cause in the 
history of European-Asian Civilization." We see, then, 
that, in all the countries of Civilization, from the 
Hoangho to the Tiber, there occurred movements in 
this Sixth Century b.c. that definitively broke up the 
previously existing, and decisively initiated, not only 
new forms of Civilization, but such new forms of 
Civilization — such new forms, that is, of economic and 
political, of religious and moral, and of philosophical 
and literary development — such new forms as must be 
distinguished as genera marking a new Age, rather than 
as species marking but a new Period. Of course, con- 
tinuity of development can be clearly traced across this 
Sixth Century, and that, meagre comparatively as are 
our records. But so great is the difference between the 
Civilizations on this, and on the other, side of the Sixth 
Century B.C., that the men on the other side of that 
great Epoch — the men of Old India, Old Assyria, Old 
JudEea, Old Egypt, Old Greece and Rome — must be dis- 
tinguished as Ancients from Modems. And so little, in 
comparison, is the difference between the men on this and 
on the other side of the Christian Era, up to the Sixth 
Century B.C., that the name of 'Ancients ' in nowise truly 
belongs to them; and has, indeed, only been given to them 
under the influence of the false monkish theory of Diony- 
sins the Little. The men of the half-millennium ante- 
cedent to the Christian Era were but Modems of the 
Classical Period. 

5. But, overthrown as ancient Paganism thus began 
to be in the Sixth Century B.c. ; overthrown through the 
action of Economic Changes that, in Europe, transformed 
the very constitution of society ; overthrown through that 

"• S« Europe and Asia {1879), and particularly pp. 471—4 ; and 
Socialism as a Im^u of Economic Development, flrst delivered as a 
Lecture to Workmen in April, 1883, and afterwards published in 
Tthday, of October of the same year. 


Historical Introduction. 

portentous succession of Persian, of Greek, and of Roman 
World-conquests, which filled the whole of the Classical 
Half-millennium, intermingled at once the blood of Peoples 
and the rites of Reli^ons, and won for the Aryan Race 
supremacy over all other Races ; overthrown by the aspi- 
rations of that vast Moral Revolution indicated by the 
change from the old Religions of Custom to the new 
Religions of Conscience preached by the prophets of 
that Sixth Century — Confucius, Buddha, Zoroaster," the 
Second Isaiah, and Pythagoras — that vast Moral Revolu- 
tion indicated hardly less by the change from the objec- 
tive epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod to the subjective 
lyric poetry of Alkaios and Sappho; and overthrown by 
those great results of the common use of demotic and 
alphabetic, instead of hieratic and hieroglyphic, writing^* 
— ^the emergence of Philosophy from the swaddling-bands 
of Theology, and the escape of Literature from the colleges 
of Priests — how came it that ancient Paganism, by so 
many consilient causes overthrown, was not extirpated? 
In order clearly to answer such a question, the causes 
of the overthrow of, at least. Western Paganism, must 
be more closely considered, and more specifically defined. 
In other words, we must consider and define the forces 
that gave Christianity its triumph. Now, from the point 
of view of the great General Revolution of the Sixth 
Century B.C., Christianity appears as but the Western 
result of 500 years of the %vorking of the forces of a 
Revolution which initiated a new Age in the general 
development of Humanity. This Revolution, in every 
sphere of it, whether economic and political, or moral 
and religious, or philosophical and literary, is marked by 
the same general characteristic of a new development of 
the Individual, and of Conscience, a new development of 

■■ The date of Zoroaster is still unseCtlei! ; but whether he belonged 
to the Sixth Century n.c, or t ' ' " -■-..■ 

associated with his name had n 

■> As to the date of the substttulion of demotic for hiei 
see Goodwin, Hieratic Papyri, Cambridge Essays, if 

influence. ^m 


Tfie Survival of Paganism. 5 1 

Inwardness and Subjectivity. And hence that develop- 
ment of Conscience and of Subjectivity which, though the 
central characteristic, is the hitherto unexplained element 
of Christianity, is explained by referring it to an an- 
tecedent and more general Revolution thus characterized ; 
and by showing that the new development of the In- 
dividual and of Subjectivity characteristic of that ante- 
cedent Revolution is in accordance with, and is a verifi- 
cation of, a Law of Mental Development which has 
its analogue in the Law of Physical Evolution.^^ But 
only a general explanation is thus given of the origin 
of Christianity. The causes of its triumph must 
be more specifically defined. Note then, that a new 
Species does not arise isolatedly, but as one of in- 
numerable other variations. Nor is the survivor that 
establishes itself as a new Species the best or the most 
beautiful, but only that best adapted to the conditions 
of the environment ; and hence, that richest in elements 
capable of nourishment, rather than liable to destruction, 
by the environment. Thus it was with Christianity. It 
was the Species, not the best, nor the most beautiful, but 
the best adapted to conditions of ignorance, anarchy, and 
barbarism. For of all the innumerable Sects, the rivals 
or distanced forerunners of Christianity,^^ of all the Sects, 
Stoic, and Epicurean, Neo-Platonic, Hermetic, and Theo- 
sophic — the products of that wonderful intellectual che- 
mistry which had in Alexandria its chief laboratory ,^^ at 
the b^inning of what we now call the Christian Era — 
Christianity alone succeeded in combining the five ele- 

^ This Law of Mental Development I have thus stated : Thought^ 
in its Historic Development^ advances from the concrete conception of 
One-sided Causation^ through successively less concrete conceptions of 
Differentiated Agents^ to the abstract conception of Reciprocal Causa- 
tion; and this Advance is effected in Forms and Periods detennined by, 
and corresponding to. Physical and Social Conditions, The proof of 
this last clause of the General Law is found, as I believe I shall be 
able to show, in Laws of (i) Functional Races; (2) Periodicity ; and 
(3) Correlative Unity. 

" See Menard, Hermes Trismegiste, Introd, pp. x., xi. 

>* ' Cette ^tonnante chimie intellectuelle qui avait dtabli son prin 
cipal laboratoire k Alexandrie.'— /^V£, p. x. 



Historical Introduction. 

ments of contemporary sentiment and thought, not the 
most rational, but the most powerful. 

6. These elements were, first of all, the myth of the 
dying and re-born God. Shattered as was belief in all 
the various Gods to whom this myth was attached, the 
belief in incarnation was still as prevalent, the myth 
of a God-man dying and rising again as enchanting, 
and the death-songs of Linus, of Ad6nis, and of 
Manures as pathetically affecting as ever. And at- 
tached to a new personage, who had actually exercised 
a commanding personal influence, and died on the cross 
of the Sun-gods, the central myth of Paganism could 
not but have a new vogue and triumph. Secondly, in its 
doctrine of Immortality, and in its Eschatology, its 
doctrine of the end of the world, damnation, and glory, 
Christianity gave a new form to doctrines no less pre- 
valent than the myth of the God-man, though far less 
deeply rooted in the Aryan world. Thirdly, in preaching 
the new-old doctrines of Christianity, the great Ephesian 
I the author of the Fourth Gospel, and Paul of Tarsus, not 
only took up all that was noblest in the moral sentiment 
of the time, but gave it unsurpassed expression. Paul 
made the Christ-legend of the Galilzeans a means of con- 
vincing of sin and powerfully persuading to righteousness. 
And the story of the Galilaean fishermen was told by tlie 
unknown Ephesian with a simplicity, ineffable tenderness, 
and sublimity that make it — even more truly than the 
story told by Thukydfdes — a «T^^a U a'el, a 'possession 
for ever.' Fourthly, uniting the moral sentiment charac- 
teristic of the time with the monotheism that had not 
only been taught in the Mysteries, but publicly preached 
since the Sixth Century i!.c., God was proclaimed as a 
Father, and this — which would appear to be especially 
due to Jesus— in a far closer and more personal sense 
than when the same name had been given of old to Ztv'i 
irait'ip. Father Zcvu. Finally — and this was the special 
and triumphant distinction of the new Sect that was to 
become a new Religion — not only were these various 



The Survival of Paganism. 53 

sentiments and ideas common to all the Aryan peoples 
thus reproduced in Christianity, but — as I have elsewhere 
shown^* in considering the Christian Revolution ' in its in- 
tellectual aspect,' discussing the cause of the uncompromis- 
ing hostility between Neo-Platonism and Christianity, 
and demonstrating the antagonism of the fundamental 
conceptions of the Neo-Platonic and the Christian Trinity 
— these various sentiments and ideas were united with 
the notion of an External and Personal, as distinguished 
from an Immanent and Impersonal God, and hence with 
the notion of Creation as opposed to Emanation, and of 
Miracle as opposed to Law. But from this notion, as de- 
veloped in Christianity, there resulted thd most direct 
antagonism to every one of the essential characteristics of 
Paganism : there resulted a demonizing rather than diviniz- 
ing of Nature ;^^ an ascetic as distinguished from a natural 
conception of Purity — a conception, that is, of Purity as 
consisting, not in the predominance of affection over 
passion, but in abstinence from sexual relations ; an in- 
sistance on superstitions of future Reward and Punish- 
ment denounced by every noble Pagan,^® and uncredited 
even by boys * save not yet washed for coin ;'^* and a sink- . 
ing of the Citizen in the Saint. And hence it is in*ex- 
amining the nature and origin of the Christian God-idea 
that we may, at length, discover what the Cause was of 
the Survival of Paganism. 

'^ his and Osiris ^ chap, i., sec. ii., The Development of the Notion 
cf Miracle, 

'7 It is just its exceptional character, as I have elsewhere noted, 
that has made so famous the charming letter of Basil the Great (b. 326, 
d. 379) to his friend Gregory of Nazianzen, describing his mountain- 
hermitage in the Armenian forest overlooking the plain through which 
flows the rapid Iris. See Basilei M., Epist, xiv., p. 93, and ccxxiii., 
P* 339- Only in Gregory of Nyssa, the brother of Basil, do we find, 
among the early Christians, a similarly refined feeling of Nature. 

*• See, for instance, Plutarch, Ve SupersHHone^ iv. ; Moralia^ 
t. iv., pp. 197—8. Ed., Dubner. 
*9 See Juvenal, Sat, ii. 149—52. 

' Esse aliquid Manes et Subterranea Re^^a, 
£t contum et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigras, 
Atque una transiere vadum tot millia cumba 
Nee pueri credutU^ nisi qui nondum cere iavantur* 


Historical Introduction. 

7. The Christian idea of a single Interfering Persona! 
God is a distinctively Semitic idea ; and it is bccaiise 
Ihis idea of an Interfering God is a distinciively Semitic 
idea, obnoxious to the scientific Aryan mind; it is because 
of this that Aryan Paganism has survived through all the 
long domination of Christianity, and is everywhere now 
reviving. Next to, or rather side by side with, Economic 
Conditions, stand Racial Conditions, as the most profound 
of Historical Causes, Nor is anything, perhaps, in Man's 
history more remarkable than the permanence of the 
specific characteristics that still distinguish, as they have 
ever distinguished, the two great Races of the White 
Species or Variety of Mankind — Semites, and Aryans.^* 
Intellectually, Semites — Jews and Arabs — are still, as 
they have ever been, distinguished by absoluteness, 
coDcreteness, personality of conception ; Aryans, by re- 
lativity, abstractness, impersonahty of conception. The 
evidence of these specific characteristics is to be found, 
first of all, in their respective languages. With the 
Semite,' says Professor Sayce," ' the Universe is an 
undivided whole — not a compound resolvable into its 
parts. The Semite has never developed a true verb . . . the 
Aryan noun, on the contrary, pre-supposes the verb. It 
is difficult to compare the rich development of the Aryan 
sentence. . .with the bald simplicity of Semitic expression, 
The Aryan sentence is as well fitted to be the instrument 
of the measured periods of reasoned rhetoric as the 
Semitic sentence is of the broken utterances of Ijrical 
emotion.' Next, such evidence is to be found in the con- 
trasted Semiticand Aryan conceptions of God. To the J ews, 
since, at least, the Sixth Century B.C., and to the Arabs, 
since, at least, the Sixth Century A.c, and to their respec- 
tive prophets previously to those epochs of national mono- 
theism, God is a Personal Being, externa] to the World, an 
Absolute One, Yahveh, or Allah. To Aryan thinkers, unin- 

™ To another great Race of the White Species the ruling castes of 
the Ancient Egyptians seem, as t think, probably to have b«longed. 

"' Stience o/Lan^ungt, vol. i.,p.i78; and compare RCNAN, //M/otr^- 
ties Langutt Semibqius. 


TJie Survival of Paganism. 55 

fluenced by Semites, God has ever been either but a name 
for the Infinite and Unknowable,^^ or has been conceived as 
the Thought or Power immanent in the World, or System 
of Things,^ or as a related Trinity, the Supernatural 
Persons of which but thinly disguise such natural elements 
as those necessary for Generation;^ or such natural 
objects as Heaven, Earth, and the Underworld;^ or such 
natural processes as Creation, Preservation, and Destruc- 
tion.^ Quibus explicatis, says, in reference to Pagan 
Theology, Cicero, who had probably been initiated in 
the Mysteries of Samothrace — quibus explicatis^ ad ration^ 
emque revocatis, Rerum magis natura, quam Deorutn cognos- 
citurJ^ And still further and conclusive evidence of the 
difTerence between the fundamental intellectual concep- 
tions of Semites and Aryans is to be found in the fact that 
those sublime intellectual creations — Science, Jurispru- 
dence, and the Drama — Mankind owe to the Aryan Race 
alone.^ For the essential condition of these creations 

» * Can we define Him, they said, or apprehend Him ?* writes Max 
Miiller of the Indian Aryans. * No/ they rephed, 'all we can say of 
Him is No, no ! . . . Whatever we have csdled Him, that He is not We 
cannot comprehend or name Him.' — Origin ami Growth of Religion^ 
p. 36a 

'3 The God of Aristotle, for instance, was a principle of abstract 
Thought which moves a coetemal world of which He, or It, can 
neither change nor suspend the immutable Laws. 

«4 See Payne Knight, Worship of Priapus, and SytPtbolical Lan- 
Kuage of Ancient Art and Mythology; Dulaure, Histoire des 
differens Cultes; and Inman, Ancient Faiths^ and Pagan and 
Christian Symbolism. 

*5 As in the Trinity of Dodona. See above^ p. 23. 

«* As in the Brahmanic Trinity. «7 De Nat, Deor,, i. 42. 

3^ Most of the great names of so-called ' Arabian ' Science are names 
of Aryans writing in Arabic, the general language of Literature, in the 
true Mediaeval Period (500—1000) in the East, as Latin was in the 
West. And * cette science,' says M. Renan, * cette science et phUo- 
iophie Arabes n'etaient qu'une mesquine traduction de la science et 
de la philosophie grecques.'— Z>^ la Part desPeuples Semitique^ pp. 17, 
iS. Compare the same author's Averroes (Ibn. Roschd.), p. ^ fig* 
The contributions made to Philosophy and Science by persons of 
Semitic blood, yet not only speaking and writing, but thinking in Aryan 
languages, cannot be taken as evidence of native Semitic capacity for 
Philosophy and Science. But even if such Semitic contributions to 
Philosophy and Science are considered, it will be found that they are 


Historical Introduction. 

is relativity of conception, and what flows from that, the 
notion of God as immanent in, rather than external to 
the Universe, and hence the notion of Emanation rather 
than Creation, of reciprocal Action, rather than arbitrary 
Will, and of Law rather than Miracle.^ 

8. But profoundly different as are thus the characteristic 
intellectual conceptions of Semitic and of Aryan men. 
Economic and Political Conditions may be powerful 
enough to induce in an intellectually higher, the ideas of an 
intellectually lower. Race.'"* This is not the place to point 
out the Economic and Political Conditions that in- 
duced in Aryans the lower intellectual ideas of Semites, 
and submerged, for a thousand years, the splendid 
conquests of the Classical Period of Arj'an Science. 
I must here confine myself to indicating the further 
proof of the Non-Aryan character of the notion of 
an External Interfering God, and hence, Creation and 
Miracle, which is afforded by the facts of the revolt of the 
Aryan mind against this Semitic notion wherever it has 
been imposed on Aryans. Of this revolt the first proof is 


not so much creative as elaborative ; not enunciating new ideas, but 
working out ideas already enunciated by Aryan thinkers. 

'9 And that these antithetic notions characterise Semiie and Aryan 
respectively, was the opinion also of St. Paul (i Cor. i. 22). 'The 
Jews,' he says, ' require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom.' 

y This will, I believe, be found to be one of the most important 
principles of a Scientific Mythology, and especially important in the 
explanation of the origin of that most variously const i luted, perhaps of 
all Mythologies, the Greek. That Greeks as Greeks, or indeed, that 
Ajyans as Aryans, were ever savages, is, I venture to think, a contra- 
diction in terms. For the abslractness and the inflections character- 
istic of Aryan, and particularly of Greek, speech directly negative a 
natural savagery— a savagery the result of deficient brain-development. 
But Economic Conditions may so lower and degrade men of the highest 
Races as to make possible the adoption, or even creation, of myths 
monstrous even as those not only possibly but necessarily originating 
in the brains of lower Races. And hence, in studying the varied web 
of Greek Folk- mythology, I would regard those myths which have their 
analogies among the lowest savages, as records certainly of enslave- 
ment to roasters, either of their own, or of another Race, and as re- 
cords probably also of mixture, in their economic or political en- 
slavement, with cerebral ly lower Races. 

Tlie Survival of Paganism. 57 

to be found in the long, desperate, and, at length, despair- 
ing struggle of the Neo-Platonists against Christianity. 
For the secret of this struggle — as, following M. Jules 
Simon,^^ I have elsewhere shown with some fulness^^ — ^the 
secret of the bitter and unvanquishable antagonism of the 
Neo-Platonists to Christianism is to be found, not in any 
difference of moral spirit and aspiration, but in a profound 
difference of intellectual conception — a difference revealed 
especially in the investigation of the but superficially 
similar Neo-Platonic and Christian doctrines of the 
Trinity. They are, in fact, two rival philosophies,^ of 
which the latter is more particularly characterized by the 
entirely new meaning it gave to 0avfjui, and Miraculumy 
which, as yet, meant only a * Wonder,'^ and not, as after 
the triumph of Christianity, a Supernatural Event, or 
act of an External God.^^ For the Neo-Platonic and 
Christian Trinities are not merely contrasted in the 
relations of their Hypostases or Persons to each other, 
but — ^what is of far more importance — in the relations 
of these Triune Hypostases, or Persons, to Nature, or 
the Universe. In the Neo-Platonic Theory, the Uni- 
verse itself is a system of Hypostases, more or less divine, 
all emanating from God by a necessary expansion, and 
returning to Him by a concentration equally necessary. 
In the Christian Theory, the World has neither proceeded 

3« Histoire de VEcole d^AUxandrie^ t il, pp. 308—41. Thomas Taylor, 
in the Introduction to his Translation of the Parmenides of Plato 
(1793)1 sees that there is a difference between the Neo-Platonic and 
the Christian Trinity, and calls the latter ' a dire perversion of the 
highest procession from the First of Causes' (p. 185). But he has no 
clear, if any, notion of what the difference really is. 

3a Jsis and Osiris, chap, i., The Christian Revolution in its Intel' 
lectual Aspect. 

33 < £n comparant la Trinity chr^tienne avec celle d'Alexandrie, 
M. Jules Simon ne compare done rien moins (]ue deux philosophies 
rivaies.' — Saisset, Revue des Deux Mondes^ t. vii., p. 808. 

34 And this is all it still means in the Greek Folk-songs. See, for 
instance, The Miracle of St. George^ Trans., p. 107. 

35 Hence Professor Huxlev's dennition of a * Miracle' is historically 
untrue, and his criticism of Hume's definition has but a superficial 
plausibility. See his Hume, pp. i30,Jl^. 

'-■ - -■^^-^ -^ - 


Historical Introduction, 

from, nor has it been engendered, but cnaiti, by God, who 
is conceived as outside and independent of the world, 
which may be annihilated by a fiat as arbitrary as that by 
which it was created. The relation of the Universe to 
God is thus, in the Neo-Platonic theory, reconcilable at 
least with the conceptions of Science. For tf the theory 
of an Emanating Trinity is but a dream, the notion of 
Emanation is the pregnant germ of the conception of 
Law, and a prophecy of verifiable theories of Evolution, De- 
velopment, and Progress. On the other hand, the Christian 
conception of the relation of the Universe to God is a 
direct negation of the most fundamental conceptions of 
Science. For the notion of Creation is but the supremest 
form of the notion of Miracle, and a prophecy of the intel- 
lectual exercitations alone compatible therewith — barren 
disputes of Monks, and logomachies of Schoolmen, But 
masculine Reason was overpowered by feminine Emotion. 
Vicisti GalilcBc' And every forecast of Greek Philosophy 
as to the consequences of the triumph of this Galilcean 
Rehgion was only too fatally fulfilled. As foreseen and 
predicted by the Neo-Platonists, the triumph of Chris- 
tianity closed the Schools of Philosophy, and strangled 
Science ; brought with it a view of Nature and Humanity 
which necessarily led to fanatical asceticism, and hateful 
intolerance; and by giving to Morality the supernatural 
sanctions of Heaven and Hell, gave a new force and con- 
secration to that base supernaturahsm of the vulgar 
Ethics for which Greek Philosophy had begun, at least, to 
substitute the natural sanctions of the Individual Con- 
science and the Common Good. 

9- Yet, though vanquished, not in vain had the Neo-Pla- 
tonists fought. Not only before, but for a thousand years 
after, the closing of the Schools of Alexandria and of' 
Athens C529),Neo-Platonism, with its notion of Emanation, 
and germ, at least, of the conception of Law, urged and 
enabled all Christians of greater intellectual capacity to 
modify, at least, the Semitic anthropomorphism of their 
Creed. Great was this influence of Neo-Platonism on the 


The Survival of Paganism. 59 

Greek Fathers ; and particularly on St. Clement, Origen, 
and Gregory of Nyssa ; but little, on the Latin Fathers, 
save the greatest, St. Augustine;^* who, however, knew 
the Neo-Platonists only in Latin translations. Yet before 
the closing of the Schools of Athens, a Christian contem- 
porary of the last Athenian philosophers wrote those 
treatises, which go under the name of Dionysius the Areo- 
pagite, and which were destined, not only to transmit to the 
West the Neo-Platonic tradition and influence, but to 
carry it on till the rise of Modern Philosophy with 
Descartes and Bacon. For it chanced that the works 
of Dionysius, with the Commentary of St. Maximus 
the Martyr, were presented by the Emperor of the East, 
Michael the Stammerer, to the Emperor of the West, 
Lewis the Debonnair, and were translated by that greatest 
thinker of the Keltic Race, John Scot (Erigena).^^ As in 
the political world, Charles the Great, so, in the intellectual 
world, John Scot, at the court of the great Emperor* 
grandson, Charles the Bald, towers above all contempora- 
ries, not only of his century, but of the whole Mediaeval 
Period (500 — 1000). And in Scot we see at once the 
influence of Neo-Platonism, and the revolt of Aryan 
thought against the Semitism of Christianity, in such ideas 
as these : Ignorance — or, as we now phrase it, ' agnosti- 
cism ' — in Theology is to Scot the sign of true wisdom ; 
Creation is not an arbitrary Miracle, but a necessary 
Emanation, and not accidental, therefore, but coetemal 
with God ; the Universe is a series of God-manifestations, 
or Theophanies, of which the Trinity itself is one ; Death 
is but a metamorphosis ; and all Creation returns, at length, 
to its primordial unity without losing an}^hing save its 

3^ Both the fact and the character of the Neo-Platonic influence on 
St Au)^stine is evident in such fine and profound passages as, for 
instance, these : ' Verius enim cogitatur Deus quam dicitur, et verius 
est quam cogitatur ' (De Trin,^ vii. 7). Or, again, ' Amemus non 
inveniendo invenire, potius quam inveniendo non invenire te, Domine ' 

37 See GuizOT, Htst de la Civil, en Fratue, t I ; and St. RfNE 
Taillandier, Scot Eri^ene. 


Historical Introdiution. 

miseries and imperfections.'" But, true to its Semitic 
origin. Orthodox Theology, even in the Greek Church 
of the East, has always repelled whatever tended 
to weaken the notion of a Personal Cause, free and 
intelligent, which by an act of its will has created, 
and can similarly annihilate. Still more severe has 
been the Latin Church of the West. And Scot, there- 
fore, had the honour of having his works condemned 
in his lifetime by the Councils of Valence (855) and 
Langres (859). But in the next, or Feudal Half-Milen- 
nium (looo — 1500) Scot's Translation of the Areopagite's 
Thcalogia Afysti'ca became the text-book of all the great 
Mystics, The God, however, of the French Mystics — 
Hugh and Richard, abbots of St. Victor, Bonaventura, 
Gerson, and Thomas-a-Kempis — was still of the orthodox 
and Semitic type'* — a personal and Uving God separate 
from the world. But the God of the German Mystics — 
Eckart, Tauler, Suso, and Ruysbrock — was more charac- 
teristically Aryan' — an abstract impersonal principle, truly 
inliDite, and therefore unknowable. 

10. Nor only is it thus, in the revolt of the Aryan mind 
against the Semitic Yahveh-notion of Christianism, that 
my theory of the cause of the survival of Aryan Paganism 
may be verified. It may be verified also in the similar 
revolt against the Semitic Allah-notion of Islamism. But 
here lean do no more than point to the profound modifi- 
cation of Islamism among the Arj'ans of India, of Persia, 
of Anatolia, and of Albania, and more particularly to 
the Creeds of the Sufis, and of the Dervishes generally, 
and especially those of the Bektashf Order, to which al- 

iS Compare such passages, for instance, as these from the De Divi 
Natur. : ' Deus per meiaphoram amor dicitur, dum sU plus quam 
amor, unumquemque supetat amorem' (i, 70, p, 73). ' Nam el crea- 
lurain Deo est subsislens, et Deus in ercaiura mirabili et ineffabili 1 
inodo creatur' (iii. 17, p. 238). 'Nullum miraculum in hoc mttndo I 
contra Naturam Deum fecisse legimus ' (v. 23. p. 469). 1 

M May this possibly have been owin^ to thai large admixture of 
Semitic blood in certain parts of the French population, which M. Renan 
has reccni!)' endeavoured to show grounds for affirming .' 


The Survival of Paganism. 6i 

most the whole nation of the Tosk Albanians belong.*" 
Yet even this twofold revolt of the Aiyan mind against 
the Semitic Creeds imposed upon it, does not exhaust the 
means of historically verifying my theory of the cause of 
the survival of Aryan Paganism. It may be verified also 
by the historic result of the attempt to reason as an 
Aryan, yet believe as a Semite. The presupposition of 
Scholasticism — the origin of which, by the way, we may 
locally associate with Canterbury and .its archbishop, 
Anselm (1093)— the presupposition of Scholasticism was 
the rationality of the dogma. Hence St. Anselm's Credo 
ut intelligam — ' I believe in order to understand.' But 
the attempt to understand ended with the impossibility 
of believing. For it ended with the fatal affirmation 
that a thing might be at once dogmatically true and 
rationally false. By the end of the Fifteenth Century 
the Aristotelian Pomponatius boldly applied this con- 
clusion, not only to the dogma of the immortality 
of the soul, but to all the greater problems of Philo- 
sophy. And the Sixteenth Century*' is characterized not 
only by that virtual overthrowal of Semitic Christianity 
as an intellectual system which was the logical result 
of Scholastic disputation ; but by a rebirth of Science and 
Philosophy, due to the new force given to the struggling 
Reason of the West by reconnection with Classical 
Aryan thought undominated as yet by Semitism. It 
is true that the very century that saw the rise of a 

^oSee D02V, fiistoirtdeTIslamum; GKK.cmvv.TAS$Y, PAiloiopAif 
et Religion chez les Prnansj DE GOBINEAU, Reli^n et Philosophie 
dans PAsie Cenlrale; Tholuck, Sufismusj and Bluihensammlutig aus 
der MorgeHlandisckm Mystik s Palmer, Oriental Mjistidsm ; Brown, 
The Dervishes,tic. 

*' Between the Sixteenth Century, the beginning of the Modem, and 
the Sixth Century B.C., the beginning of the Classical ' Period, many 
remarkable analogies might be pointed out. Suffice it, however, here 
to note that, as in the Sixth Century B.C. there came into common use 
demotic and alphabetic instead of hieratic and hieroglyphic writing ; 
so, in the Sixteenth Century, writing was superseded by printing. And 
similar were the intellectually enfranchising results of the new practical 
art that distinguishes each of these Centunes respectively. 


Historical Introduction. 

Science and Philosophy by which thinkers Mere more] 
and more emancipated from the domination of the 
Semitic notions of Creation and Miracle, this very century 
saw, in another direction, a new domination given, in 
Western Europe, at least, to these Semitic notions as 
anti-social as they are anti-scientific. Yet this very fact 
might be cited in proof of the necessity of Special 
Economic Conditions to induce in Aryans belief in the 
God of Semites. It would, however, be here out of place 
even to attempt to indicate the Economic Conditions that, 
in the Sixteenth Centurj-, at once created the industrial 
Middle Classes, and made successful among them that 
Western Reformation, and Evangelicalism which more 
closelythaneverenchained in Jewish superstitions. It must 
suffice to remark that, just as the political Barbarism of 
the West caused the Latin Fathers to be far more domi- 
nated by Semitism than the Greek Fathers ; so, the 
economic Individualism of the West has caused the M^cst 
European Peoples to be, since the Reformation, far more 
dominated by Semitism than the East European Peoples 
and particularly the Greeks. And very interesting, I think 
it is, to note that, just as the Greek Fathers were less 
Semitic in their Theology than the Latin Fathers; so, 
the Greek People are more Pagan now in their Folk-songs 
than any of the Western Peoples. 

II. But was wirklich ist, das ist vcmuft/tUck.*' And the 
lai^e view given of the history of Civilization by that General 
Theory" from which the thesis of the present Essay is a 
dednction, should enable us to see, not only the Cause of 
the Survival of Aryan Paganism in such a fact as the 
irreconcilably antithetic character of the Semitic notion 
at the core of the conquering Religion — but should enable 
us to see also the reason, the utility, the justification of. 
the temporary conquest effected by this Semitic notion- 
this notion of an interfering Personal God, and henci 

«' By no means, however, do I accept with Hegel the converee of I 
this maxim : If 'as veniun/lluh ist, das ist •urirkluh. 

« See above, p. 46. 


The Survival of Paganism. 63 

Creation and Miracle. The moral sentiment and enthu- 
siasm — the Love, in the highest sense of the term — ^which, 
as the result of the great Revolution of the Sixth Centurj' 
B.C., was the chief characteristic of Christianity, was far 
in advance of any development yet generally given, in 
the West, to the notion of Law. This highly developed 
moral sentiment, therefore, could find adequate support 
only in a personal conception of Deity, and a mythology of 
Miracle. But ideas are worked clearly out only in con- 
flict with their antitheses. It is to the long struggle, 
therefore, of the Aryan mind in Europe with the Semitic 
notion of Miracle that we must attribute that supreme 
development of the idea of Law which, in the Neo-platonic 
notion of Emanation, existed only in germ — that supreme 
development of the idea which enables us now variously 
to define it as Conservation of Energy, Correlation of 
Forces,Co-existence, Reciprocal Action, Mutual Determina- 
tion.^ Reciprocal Action, however, or Mutual Determina- 
tion, is but the intellectual conception, and technical 
expression of that highest moral ideal — Love. Adequate, 
therefore, at length, to the development of the moral 
ideal, Love, is the development of the intellectual ideal. 
Law. When this is seen, there can no longer be, for 
Aryans, a moral necessity for belief in that Semitic 
Personal God, the very notion of whom is the negation 
of the idea of Law. Hence, Atheism. But it is an 
Atheism that means denial only of the Semitic God, and 
particularly of the God of the Jews. It is an Atheism 
that is but a return to the God of our Aryan fore- 
fathers ; a return to that impersonal conception of the 
Infinite and Eternal,^ through which alone we can 

44 The extreme difference of the conditions of the struggle, in the 
East, between Aryan thought and imposed Semitism, as well as the 
very much later date of the beginning of that struggle — in Persia, the 
Seventh Century (Saad Ibn Abu Wakkus, 636—41), and in India, the 
Eleventh (Mahmud of Ghuzni, looi — 24) or rather the Twelfth Century 
(Mohammed of Chore, 1 193 — 1206) — sufficiently explain the fact that, as 
the result of that struggle, there was no development there, as in the 
West, of the scientific conception of Law. 

« See abave^ p. 55, n. 20. 

64 Historual Introduction. 

fully enter on our inheritance of the matchless treasures 
of classical Aryan thought ; a return to that impersonal 
God, to whom, through the bonds of imposed Semitism, 
at least half the greatest theologians of the Christian 
Chiirch,** and all the Aryan theologians of Islam,*^ have 
struggled ; a return to that impersonal conception of the 
Infinite and Eternal which renders unnecessary the con- 
temptible fallacies and degrading hypocrisies of the vain 
attempt to reconcile the Semitic notion of an Interfering 
Personal God with the Aryan conception of a Living and 
Ordered Kosmos, the Aryan conception, in a word, of Law ; 
a return to that worldview of our Aryan forefathers in 
which God is the sacred name, not of a fictitious Divinity 
independent of Nature, but of the divine facts of Nature 
itself, and of that supremest fact of all, the Co-existing 

46 See abavCy pp. 60 — 2. 

47 Ibid^ p. 62, n. 37. 


Mr. Stuart Glennie, who originally suggested these Transla- 
lions, has directed the selection of ihe Folk-songs with the aim 
of giving as complete a view as possible of all the various 
phases of Greek Folk-life. As illustrating, therefore, all the 
nine Sections of his Classification of Greek Fotk>son^s — a 
classification based on general principles which he may here- 
after have an opportunity of illuitrating and defending—this 
Collection of Translations may, I believe, fairly claim to stand 
quite alone in its completeness. The Songs belong, however, 
exclusively to the provinces of Albania. Thessaly, and Mace- 
donia; and they may thus have an additional interest as 
expressions of ihe Folk-life of ' Enslaved Greece.' The 
Originals will, therefore, be found chiefly in Aravandinos' 
Son^S ofEpeiros ("Ao/iiTa Ttu'll-niBtu, 1880), an 1 (Ecunomidks' 
Songi of Olympus {T^nyeiaia rsu 'oy.iy.-nov, iSSi). But in 
order to the comprehensiveness aimed at, ttanslatious are also 
given from Kind's Songs of New Gretet {ytnyiAm, r?; via; 
'EXXcJlo;, 1833); Passow's JiomaU Songs {T^ayi.jiia. l'[»,»aix«, 
i860); \ M.Aa»\T\'s Afemorial Songi (M«!ui«(ira'AsM<'"«. 1861); 
and various other Sources, 

My Translations have, in every case, been made directly 
from the Greek texts, and without reference to othei 
translations, even in the few cases, among the Songs here 
given, in which such translations exist. Mr. Stuart Glennie 
having urged the most exact reproduction possible, the Songs 


66 Note by the Translator. 

have been, almost without exception, rendered line for line, 
and the peculiarities of the metre and rhythm have been 
closely followed. And whatever may still be the imperfection 
of these Translations, in every Song I have been indebted to 
Mr. Glennie for emendations which have made the rendering 
more literal, the metre more correct, and the versification more 

I must also gratefully acknowledge my obligations to Mr. 
Theodore Ralli — a member of the well-known Chiot family, 
mentioned in Song (for instance, belowy p. 167) as well as in His- 
tory — to whose kindness I am indebted, not only for the interest 
he has taken in the book throughout, but also for the true 
rendering of many obscure and difficult words and phrases. Nor 
must I forget the kind encouragement given by Professor 
Blackie, to whom some specimens of these Translations were 
submitted two years ago by his former pupil, Mr. Stuart Glennie. 
As the veteran Scottish Professor was the first scholar in this 
country who drew attention to the identity of Modern with 
Ancient Greek, we trust that he will regard this work as a 
fruit, and, perhaps, as no unworthy fruit, of his endeavour to 
promote the study of Greek, not as a dead, but as a living 
Language. And we hope that such study will have not only 
speculative and scientific, but practical and political results 
in exciting sympathy, and gaining aid, for that reconstitution 
of Hellas which is still unachieved, and the fulfilment yet of 
Shelley's prophetic vision in the first year of the War of 
Independence (182 1) — 

* Another Athens shall arise, 

And to remoter time 
Bequeath, like sunset to the skies. 
The splendour of its prime ; 
And leave, if naught so bright may live, 
All Earth can take, or Heaven can give.' 

L. M. J. a 


Quin etiam antiquitatum invesHgatores hand patica in his popu- 
laribus carminibus reperient satis digna^ quae respicianty velut quod 
Charontemyfluminum arborutnque numina^ Patcam adhuc Graecis 
pro daemonibus venerari mos est. Sed multo magis tniraberis quod 
coed Hhapsodi vicos peragrantes quales ante triginta fere saecula 
Ulixisfaia et Achilles certamina canebant^ etiatnnunc festis diebus 
populum epicis carminibus delectare solent^ — Passow. 

*^ Le plus grand polte de la Grhe contemporcUne^ dest le peuple 
grec lui-mhne^ avec cet innombrable essaim de rapsodes qiiil engendre 
sans cesse, et qui ien vont^ en quelque sorte sans interruption, depuis 
le vieil Homire, le premier et Pinimitable^ mendiant comme luiy 
chantant, improvisant, enrichissant chaque jour le trdsor de cette 
poisie dont ils sont les fiddles dipositaires, en mime temps que les 
vulgarisateurs? — Yem£n IZ . 




Ai-Dondto [Sou/iy 
'O Xarretnt ix/rqin, -siyi lA xutvy^an 
x' i^u^m e ro mriri rw ti^^s "M^iiii xal x^isi. 

x. r. X. 
{Aravandinos, 446.) 
Young Hdntseri fared gaily forth, for he was going 

But homeward he returned again, without his heart and 

' My mother, at my heart's a pun ; and in my head, my 

mother ; 
A trembling's taken hold of me; 111 die before the 

evening t' 
' My son, you've at your heart no pain, nor in your head, 

my Hdnts'ri ; 
You've only seen Eliiiyenni, and she your eyes has 

' See Iittrod., p. 1 1, and p. 33, n. 9. 


JO Greek Folk-Songs. 

I'll send the scribes to her for you, and I will send the 

That they may write the dowry down, and gentlemen 

I'll send her.' 
They went, and there they stood and knocked, knocked 

at her lordly portal. 
Eli6yenni sat in her hall, five hundred slaves around her. 
Some dressed in garments of the blue, and others of the 

yellow ; 
In blue, in azure blue they sat, you'd call them noble 

She asked the envoys who they were, and what it was 
they wanted. 

* We're come from HAntseri, to say, he for his wife 

would take you.' 
*His little body I'd not have for horseblock in my 

For men to mount their horses from, and mules around 

it tether ; 
Nor do I want his little eyes to watch and ward my castle.' 
When word is brought to HAntseri, it sorely, sorely 

grieves him. 
He loads a mule with golden coin, and to a Witch he 

hies him. 
And when she sees his countenance with grief and 

sickness written. 
Then searchingly she questions him, she questions him 

and asks him : 

* Say, have the brigands robbed thee now, thy cornfields 

and thy castle ? 
Or has thy brother slain thy love, and killed thy best 
beloved ?' 

* I've neither lost my castle, dame ; nor have 1 yet a brother; 
But I have seen Eli6yenni, and I for her am dying.' 

The Sunborn and Hdntseri. 7 1 

* Now go, and take thee Prankish clothes, and dress in 

woman's garments, 
And hie thee, hie thee then to her, and knock thou at 
her portal.' 

* Who art thou who art knocking with my portal's rings 

of iron ?' 

* *Tis I. I am thy cousin, come to thee from Ax-Dondto. 
My mother dear has sent me here, that I may learn to 


* And welcome art thou, cousin mine, who comest from 

Then lovingly she kisses her, and locks in tight embraces, 
And tenderly she takes her hand and leads her to the dais, 
And sits her down to teach her guest how she the gold 

should broider ; 
A kindling flame within she feels, she feels a flame un- 
And when the broidering is done she gives to her the 

* O what bad customs you have here, you people in this 

The day long at the broidery, the evening at the spindle !' 
The day was done and evening fell, fast coming was the 

And Hdntseri still was not seen, with musk so sweetly 

With hounds around him in the field, and scouring all 

the meadows. 
' The night has come, Eli6yenni, and fast the shades are 

falling ; 
The cuckoos wend them to their nests, and to their beds 

the reapers ; 
And I, poor homeless nestling, where shall I go for my 

slumber ?' 


72 Greek Folk-Songs. 

* O hush thee, hush thee, cousin mine, and sleep thoa 

with my servants.' 
' The daughter of a king am I, I am of royal lineage ; 
So low am I descended now that I must sleep with 


* O hush thee, hush thee, cousin mine, and we will sleep 

When they had slept, those two had slept, and when the 

Sun had risen 
Two bowshots high above the hills, and glittered on the 

Then Hantseri his bed forsook, and hastened to his 

'O mother, deck the windows now, throw all the doors 

wide open ; 
Eli6yenni is coming here, and she will be your daughter.' 
'Go, go, my son, do thou be still, I will make all things 

All that is needed 111 prepare, and will await her coming.' 
And when the maiden understood and knew that her 

heart's burning 
Waswhat none else but Hdntseri,he only could extinguish. 
Then wildly she began to rave, and madly she discoursed: 
' O friends and servants all of mine, and damsels of my 

O light for mc the tapers red, and light for me green 

For Hdntseri is coming soon, and for his wife he*ll take me.' 
Then forth fares Eli6yenni, to Hdntseri she's going, 
Within his famous garden ground, within Aldona's castle; 
Bareheaded, naked, too, she goes, sad s^ht, s^mmmim/.^ 
Upon the road, as on she goes, to enter in the castle, 

^ Sumratmtmie. Another of the ItaHam voids \n Uus Song is 
porta (portal). 

The Sunborn and Hi^ntseri. 73 

She meets a woman whp's a Witch^ a thou^and-year-old 

Who thus accosts and asks of her, and in these words 

she asks her : 

* Who has at even seen the Sun, who has seeq Stars at 

l>Qontide ? 
Wbp has seen Eli6yenni, a traveller on the highway, 
Bareheaded, go, and naked, too, sad sight, sigounmini f 
Go, maiden, go, and do thou knock at Hintseri's high 


* Where hast thou seen young Hintseri, Witch, that 

thou shouldst know him ?^ 

* Who knoweth not the Sun in heaven, nor knows the 

Moon at even, 
He only knows not Hdntseri that is of Ar-Donito. 
Go, go, my girl, knock at his door, at that same door 

stand knocking.' 
Then went up £li6yenni, and at his door knocked loudly. 
And all the windows saw she closed, and she began to 

call there : 

* O ope to me, thou Witch's son,0 thou of Witch's lineage. 
Who with thy spells hast caus^ me to wander on the 

highways ! 
If this is of thy spells the work, then let mQ die this 

moment ; 
But if this be the work of God, then I wUl go back 

Then wakes from slumber Hdntseri ; he cries, then forth 

be rushes. 
He finds the windows all are shut, and fastened all the 

He finds, too, Eli6yenni ; dead at his gate she's lying. 
He draws then out a golden knife« which in his breast he 

buries ; 

74 Greek Folk-Songs: 

And by fair EH6yenni he lays him down expiring. 

The youth a lowly reed becomes, a cypress-tree the 
maiden ; 

And when soft blows the southern wind, they bend and 
kiss each other. 

And as the wayfarers pass by the fields of At-Dondto, 

They cross themselves full piously, and sing this lamen- 
tation : 

* See them, the two, so few of days, who passed away so 

When living they had never kissed, but, dead, they kiss 
each other !' 



rije vrj^* iyt^ag rj Xa^/o, xdrou ytaXh rijr vyjyt, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 457.) 

A MAID was singing as she sat, within a splendid window, 
Her song was on the breezes borne, borne down unto the 

As many ships as heard her lay, moored, and made fast 

their anchors. 
A tartan from the Prankish land that was of Love the 

Furled not her sails by breezes filled, nor yet along was 

Then to his men the captain called, astern where he was 

standing : 
* Ho, sailors ! furl the sails at once, and climb ye up the 


The Siren and the Seamen. 75 

That to this charmer we may list, list how she^s sweetly 

Hear what's the melody to which she her sweet song is 

But so sweet was the melody, so passing sweet her 

The skipper turned him once again, and to the shore it 

drew him. 
And to the masts the mariners kept hanging in the rigging. 



Kallanterid^ Salanica, 

Tic pvXayav r^iTg adsXfo) x' oS r^iTg aroi^ua roD x66fMv, 

X. r, X. 
(Passow^ 524.) 

Five thousand sheep were in the flock, and there were 

goats ten thousand, 
They tended were by brothers three, and by the three 

And one goes out to win a kiss, the second goes a-wooing, 
And Yanni, youngest of them all, alone they leave 

behind them, 
To watch and tend the flock of sheep, and lead the goats 

to pasture. 
To Yanni then his mother says, and wisely thus she 

warns him : 
' If you would earn a blessing now from me and from 

your father. 
Stand never 'neath a lonely tree, nor rest beneath a poplar, 

^ See Introd,^ p. 12, n. 62. 

76 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Nor ever on the water's edge make with thy pipe sweet 

Or there will come theLamia out, the Lamia of the Ocean/ 
But Yanni would not her obey, nor do his mother's 

bidding ; 
He stood beneath a lonely tree, he rested 'neath a poplar. 
And down upon the water's edge made with his pipe 

sweet music. 
Then from the sea the Lamia came, the Lamia of the 

*0 play to me, my Yanni, play, play with thy pipe 

sweet music ; 
If I should weary of the dance, thou for thy wife shalt 

take me ; 

If thou shouldst weary of thy pipe, I'll take away thy 

And all day long three days he piped, three days and 

nights he whistled ; 
And Yanni was quite wearied out, and sorely worn 

with piping. 
She took from him his flocks of sheep, of all his goats she 

robbed him ; 
And forth he went to work for hire, and labour for a 




n. T. K 

{Aravandinos, 451.) 

There came forth once a Stoicheidn devouring all the 
warriors ; - 

The Stoic heion and the Widow* s Son. 77 

All were devoured and swept away, there was not one 

remaining ; 
The Widow's Son alone remains, alone of all the 

His spear and sword he takes in hand, and forth he goes 

And hills and mountains o'er he runs, o'er peaks and 

mountain-passes ; 
No game has risen on the wing, no game is roused in 

But as the Sun begins to dip, and nears his kingly 

He finds a lovely damsel lone, a fair-haired, black-eyed 

He stops and thus accosts the maid, he stands and thus 

he asks her : 

* My girl, whose daughter may'st thou be ? O say, who 

was thy mother ?' 

* A mother bore me like to thine, a mother like thine bore 

'What ails thee, maiden ? thou art sad, what ails thee that 
thou sighest ?' 

* Where yonder thou that fig-tree seest, there at its root a 

well lies ; 
Within I've dropped my splendid ring, the ring of my 

The man who shall go down the well, and find and 

bring it to me. 
Him will I wed,and him alone,and he shall be myconsort.' 
Then quick the youth stripped off his clothes, and down 

the well descended. 
'O pull me up,girl ! pull me up, for I can find no ring here !' 

* Now thou art in, my Widow's Son, there shalt thou stay 

forever 1' 

78 Greek Folk-Songs. 



X. r. X, 

(Aravandinos, 452.) 

Nine stalwart sons could Yanni boast, and they were 

nine tall brothers, 
And they did all agree one day that they would go 

When word of it to Yanni came, he ran to give his orders. 
'You everywhere may hunt,' he said, 'roam hither, and 

roam thither. 
But to Varldmi's^ hill alone there must ye never venture ; 
For there an evil Monster lives, with nine heads on his body/ 
But unto him they would not list, but would go to Var- 

And out to them the Monster came, with nine heads on 

his body, 
And he snatched up the brothers nine, snatched up, and 

them did swallow. 
When Yanni heard their dismal fate, then grieved was he 

right sorely ; 
His spear into his hand he took, and his good sword he 

And to Varldmi's hill he ran, and quickly he ascended. 
* Come out, Stoichei6 ! come. Monster, out ! and let us 

eat each other.' 
' O welcome my good supper now, and welcome my good 

Then Yanni on the Monster ran, with sword in hand up- 

^ The site now of one of the Met^ora Monasteries. 

The Stoicheion and Yanni. 79 

Nine strokes he dealt upon the heads, the nine heads of 

his body, 
And aimed another at his paunch, and set free all his 

children ; 
And bore them home at eventide, all living, to their 





Svwdii r' dijdoyi' &t ratg f flvX/a/l; julI rd troi^udi V rod; P^dxovg^ 

{Passow^ 509.) 

Who was it that was passing by at night-time and was 

singing ? 
From nests arousing nightingales, and from the rocks 

And waking, too, a Drakissa in Drakos' arms enfolded ? 
The Drakos waxes very wroth and calls out in his fury : 

* Who was it that was singing there, for I am going to eat 

' O leave me, Drakos, let me go, O leave me five days 

longer ! 
For Sunday is my wedding-day, my wedding-feast on 

And home I must conduct my bride upon the mom of 

Tuesday I* 
The Sun had darkened, darkened quite, the Moon 

herself had hidden, 
And now the Morning Star so pure, was going to his 


* O welcome here my dinner comes, and welcome here 

my supper ^ 


Greek Folk-Sonp. 

Thy dinner — it may be of stones, stones may'st thou 
have for supper ; 

For I'm the Lightning's son, and she is daughter of the 
Thunder !' 

■Yanndki, go, good luck to thee, and take thy good- 
wife with thee 1' 

H MAnssA. 

Ti> nXtiiat AxaZsan m* df^Mrjudqxatn. 

*. r. X. 
{Passew, 523.) 

O THEV were four, five brothers, nine brothers in a band. 
Who heard of battle raging.and took their swords in hand. 
As on the road they journeyed, and on their way did ride. 
With thirst were they tormented, but soon a Well espied, 
That wide was fifty fathoms, a hundred fathoms deep. 
They cast lots who should venture down that Well's side 

so steep ; 
And as they cast the lot there, on Constantine it fell : 
' Let me go down, my brothers— O brothers, tie me welll' 
They tied thcropearound him, they let him down amain; 
Butwhen they would withdraw him, he came not up again. 
They tugged, they strained, in vain twas, the cord was 

snapped in twain. 
'O leave me now, my brothers, leave me and go ye home. 
When our good mother asks you what has of me become. 
Do not you go and tell her, tell not our mother mild, 
I've ta'en a Witch's daughter, and wed a Witch's child. 
The clothes she's making for me, tell her to sell them now. 
And back to ray betrothed, give ye her marriage-vow.' 

' P is frequently substituted for A in the Greek palois of ihc pro- 
vinces of Northern Greece. See /"r^iiw, p. xxix., and Tntns.,^. n^. 

The Witch Mother -in- Law. 8i 


H MAri22A. 

AiaBdraiQ xi' av bta8^r$ cmt' rhv r6vo fMU^ 

MqXi^ *^o sriiv ah\i /mu, xaJ Mn-^in. 

X. r. X* 
(PassoWf 520.) 

O WAYFARERS whoVe passing, who from my birthplace 

I've apples in my courtyard, come shake the apple-tree ; 
Then go and take my greetings unto my mother dear, 
And give them to my dearest, my grieving little wife, 
And my unhappy children, and all the neighbours round. 

go and tell my dearest, O tell my dear Leni6, 
Still if she will to wait me, or marry if she will ; 

Or if she come to find me, then mourning let her wear. 
For I, alas, am married, in Anatolia wed ; 
A little wife I've taken, a Witch for mother-in-law, 
Who all the ships bewitches, so they no more can sail ; 
And me she has enchanted, that I no more return. 
My horse if I should saddle, unsaddled 'tis again ; 
My sword if I gird round me, it is again ungirt; 

1 write a word to send thee, and ^tis again unwrit.' 



X. n X. 
(Passow, 512.) 

Good five-and-forty masons stout, and labourers full 

Did build the piers of Arta's bridge, and dig out the 


82 Greek Folk- Songs. 

All day they built with all their might, by night the wall 

down tumbled. 
The masons wept, they sorely wept, and made great 

But all the labourers rejoiced — they were on daily wages. 
One Sunday, 'twas an Easter Day, an Easter Day and 

The master-mason laid him down to take a little 

slumber ; 
And in his sleep he had a dream, a vision in his slumber: 

* If you slay not a human life, the walls can ne'er be 

No noble may it be, nor serf, nor any 'neath the heavens ; 
But e'en the master-mason's wife, his wife must be the 

victim !* 
He called to him a labourer, one who would do his 

bidding : 
*Go thou, and to thy lady say, go say thou to thy mistress. 
Tell her to dress, and busk herself, and put on all her 

jewels ; 
Let her put on her silver gauds, and don her silken 

Go swiftly now, and swiftly come, and swiftly bear my 

He went, his mistress soon he found, she sewing was and 


* Good morrow to thee, lady mine ! good morrow to my 

mistress ! 
The master-mason's sent to thee to say: Put on thy jewels ; 
Put on thy silver gauds and chains, and wear thy silken 

garments ; 
Come, let us the foundations lay, and build the bridge of 

She dressed herself, she busked herself, and put on all 

her jewels; 

The Bridge of Arta. 83 

She put on all her silver gauds^ and donned her silken 

garments ; 
And she went forth and found them where they on the 

stones were sitting. 
* Good morrow, lady mine, to thee ! good morrow to thee, 

mistress ! 
I've lost my first ring from my hand, the ring of my 

betrothal : 
For this I bid thee hither come that thou should'st find it 

for me/ 
But when she went to seek the ring, went down to the 

One man upon her mortar threw, lime heaped on her 

another ; 
The master-mason struck her, too, he struck her with 

his mallet. 
' O we were once three sisters dear, and all the three were 

murdered ; 
Within a church the first was killed, in convent walls the 

second ; 
The third, the best of all, was slain when Arta's bridge 

was building. 
Then, as my hands are trembling now, so may thy 

columns tremble ; 
And as my poor heart trembles now, may thy foundations 

tremble !' 



X. r. K 
(Passow, 516.) 

On Tuesday Dfgenes was born, and he must die on 

* See Introd.^ p. 13. 

84 Greek Folk-Songs. 

He to invite his friends begins, and bids, too, all the 

heroes ; 
Minas will come and MavraUs, and Drdko's son is 

And Tremantdheilos will come, who shakes the earth 

and kosmos.^ 
They go together and they find him lying on the meadow. 
* Where hast thou been, O Dfgen6s, that thou art now 

a-dying ?* 
' O eat, my friends, eat, eat and drink, for I am going to 

leave you ; 
OnAlamdna's mountains highland o'er Arabia's meadows, 
Where once not e'en ten men came out, nor even five 

were passing. 
They come by fifties — ^hundreds now, and pass by with 

their weapons. 
And I, unhappy man, came out, came out on foot and 

Three hundred bears my hand has slain, and sixty lions 

conquered ; 

But I th' Enchanted Deer pursued, pursued and sorely 

That wears upon his horns a cross, a star upon his fore- 
head ; 

And bears between his antlers proud, between his horns 
the Virgin. 

That crime has filled my measure full, and now I am 

Here in this upper world I've lived, I've lived years full 
three hundred. 

And none of all the heroes bold e'er daunted or dis- 
mayed me. 

^ Compare //. xiii. i8. * And the high hills trembled, and the 
woodland, beneath the immortal footsteps of Pdseidon.' 

The Enchanted Deer, 85 

But now I have a hero seen, unshod, on foot, and 

One who in richest garb was drest, and from His eyes 

flashed lightnings. 
I with my eyes did htm behold, and sore my heart was 

wounded ; 
That stricken Deer's my fatal crime, and now I am 



Ketl /ui '\mpiva favtnii. Sir riiu /ia{^4 /it r'aXKa. 

«. r. X. 
(fiikonomides, E. 5.) 

The Deer are racing o'er the hills, their Fawns around 

them frisking ; 
One humble Deer walks all alone, nor with the herd is 

She saunters only in the shade, and to the left reposes. 
And where she bubbling water finds, mixed with her 

tears she drinks it. 
The Sun has seen her from on high, and standing still 

he asks her : 
' O humble Deer, what is thy grief, thou go'st not with 

the others. 
But only saunter'st in the shade, and to the left reposest ?' 
* My Sun, as thou hast questioned me, thus even will I 

answer : 
For twelve long years I barren lived, without a fawn and 

But after the twelve years were passed, a Fawn had me for 

I gave it suck, I tended it till it had lived two summers ; 



Greek Folk-Songs. 

Then the inhuman hunter came, and shot my Fawn and I 

killed it 
Curst maycst thou, O hunter, be/ both thou and all thy I 

By whom I now am twice bereaved, of dearest child and J 




xi' iiiiS'>^^' t'JjiixaM Teiit tyji KdWia /*aC=o. 
{Passow, sts.) 
The king and Constantine did eat, they ate and drank 

When rose the question twtxt them twain — whose was 

the best black racer? 
The king he stakes him golden coins, for he has wealth I 

in plenty ; 
And Constantine so poor is he that he his head must 

But when the wife of Constantine, his well-beloved 

heard it, 
Down to the horse's stall she went, and filled with oats 

his manger. 
' The king's black horse if thou canst pass, and win the 

race, my Black One, 
Thy daily rations I'll increase to five-and-forty handfuls; 
I'll give these gauds that on me hang, and into horse- J 

shoes change them ; 
I'll give my golden earrings too, nails for thy shoes 111 ^ 

make them.' 
They ran for forty miles apace, abreast they ran together ; 

' All our misrortunesaner gaining the summit of Olympos {ttlav, 

C. 93, n. i) were attributed lo the feu-n of a gaielle having been hit 
y a wild volley poured mio a herd on the highest ridge of ibe 

X \ 


Tfu Black Racer, S; 

When they had run the forty-fourth, and neared the five- 

He stopped his course, and him bethought of what his 

lady'd told him. 
Like lightning-flash he came in front, came from behind 

like thunder. 
And 'tween his rival and himself he left ten miles of 

' O stay, O stay, for I'm the king, and shame me not 'bove 

measure ; 
The wager that we two have laid 111 pay to thee twice 

over !' 


Kmt 'Xiitt ^f^M VfiZoira kcl] ivo ^itjdiit yiiia.' 

{Passow, 503.) 
A SHEPHERD laid him down and slept, slept with his 

crook beside him, 
While strayed away a thousand sheep, and wandered 

goats two thousand. 
Then he along a lonely road, a lonely path betook him. 
And meeting soon an aged Wolf, he stopped, and thus he 

asked him : 
' O Wolf, say, hast thou seen my sheep ? O Wolf, hast 

thou my goats seen f 
' Perhaps I am thy shepherd then, and I thy goats am 

tending ? 
There, on that far, far distant hill, away upon the 

mountain — 
There, in the distance, graze the flocks, and goats upon 

the mountain. 


88 Greek Folk-Songs. 

I went there, too^ to eat a lamb, a tender kid to choose me, 
When quick the lame dog seized on me, and then the 

mad dog pinned me ; 
They've broke between them all my ribs, my spine, too, 

they have broken !* 



iddXuffcav avi^atn, 

X. r. X. 

Passow, 305. 

Swallows are returning fast, 
Over wide seas they have past ; 
'Neath the eaves they build their nest, 
Sing as they from labour rest 

March, O March, thou snowest amain ; 
February comes with rain ; 
April, sweetest of the year. 
Coming is, and he is near. 

Twitter all the birds and sing, 
All the little trees do spring ; 
Hens lay eggs, and O, good luck, 
Already they begin to cluck. 

Flocks and herds, a numerous train. 
To hilly pastures mount again ; 
Goats that skip and leap and play, 
Nibbling wayside shrub's green spray. 

Beasts and birds and men rejoice. 
With one heart and with one voice ; 
Frosts are gone, and snow-wreaths deep. 
Blustering Boreas fallen asleep. 

^ A survival of the xf^'^ovwr^ of ancient Greece. A similar wel- 
come is given to the birds of passage at St. Kilda. See Report of 
the Crofters^ Commission^ vol. i., p. 467. 

The Bir^s Complaint. 

iiAPAnoNO noTAior. 

Era ■nvV iiMiM fiuXjct '(r^t '^^'i|imS,t fi fuX>o, 

{Passow, 497.) 
Among a lemon-tree's green leaves a bird its nest had 

woven ; 
But wildly soon the whirlwind blew, afar the nest it 

With her complaint she flew away, and with her sore 

And built herself a nest s^in,ata well's lip she built it; 
The maidens there for water went, and all her work was 

With her complaint she flew away, and with her sore 

And now upon a reedy marsh her little nest she built her ; 
But fierce and wildly Boreas blew, and far and wide he 

whirled it. 
With her complaint she flew away, and with her sore 

And 'mong the almond-leaves she sat, she sat and sad 

Then from a castIe<window high a king's fair daughter 

heard her. 
' Would, birdie, I'd thy beauty bright, and would I had 

thy warbling I 
And would I had thy gorgeous wing, thy song of passing 

sweetness !" 
' Why would'st thou have my beauty bright, why would' st 

thou have my warbling ? 

90 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Why would'st thou have my gorgeous wing, my song of 

passing . sweetness, 
Who eat'st each day the daintiest fare, while I eat 

pebbles only; 
Who drinkest of the finest wines, I water from the court- 
Who liest on the softest couch, on sheets with broidered 

borders ; 
While me my hard fate only gives the fields and snow to 

lie on ? 
Thou wait'st the coming of the youth for frolic and for 

While I can but the sportsman wait, the sportsman who 

would shoot me ; 
Who'd shoot and roast me at his fire, and sit and sup 

upon me. 
O lady, stay thou in thy place, I've naught that thou 

shouldst envy ; 
For every heart its sorrow knows, nor may another 

know it.' 



X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 440.) 

O May has come, the month of May, the month of May 

is with us. 
May, with her thirty-petalled flowers, and April with 

his roses. 
Thou, April, art in roses drest ; and May, thou month 

most cherished, 

^ Sung by children at the doors of houses. 

The First of May. 91 

Thou 6oodest all the gladsome world again with bloom 

and blossom ; 
And me thou twinest tenderly in the embrace of beauty. 
Go, tell the maiden that I love, go, give the maiden 

That I am coming with a kiss before the rain or snow falls; 
Before the Danube shall come down, and draw the rivers 

to him. 
When it is raining I go forth, and when the shower ceases. 
And when the still small rain falls down, then springs 

the sweet carnation. 
O open us your little purse, your purse with pearls 

embroidered ! 
If it has groats in, give them us ; and if but pence, yet 

give them, 
And if sweet wine within you find, give us that we may 

drink it. 

'E«»« Xi^tmi x' hat xoXos fTfariimt, 
xdtrfi yii^fvi, x'f'^ "^ *^1 '^ /'*'"'•■ 

X. r. K. 
(Aravanditios, 414.) 
There was a youth, he was a valiant soldier, 
Who sought a tower, a town wherein to sojourn : 
The road he found, and found he too the footpath ; 
Tower found he none, nor town wherein to sojourn. 
He found a tree, the tree they call the Cypress : 
' Welcome me, tree ! welcome me now, O Cypress ! 
For I have strayed away from field of battle, 
And now my eyes in sleep would fain be closir^.' 
• Lo here my boughs, upon them hang thy weapons ; 
Lo here my roots, thy steed to them now tether ; 
Here lay thee down, rest here, and slumber sweetly.* 

92 Greek Folk-Songs. 




idiiiai fi,ag r &v6ta ffoVf 

X. r. X. 
(Aravandinos, 232.) 

* Apple-tree, sweet apple-tree, 
Lend us now, I say, your flowers, 

From your boughs rain leaves in showers !' 

* I my flowers do not lend, 

Nor my leaves from branches send. 
With my arms, and all full-drest. 
To the dance I'll with the rest. 
More than one I'll wrestling throw. 
Three times nine my strength shall know. 
On my side the Widow's Son, 
That far-famed, illustrious one ; 
Whosoe'er belies my hand. 
And against me dares to stand.' 


O nOTAM02. 


X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 398.) 

RrvER, as thou sudden gushest, 
And in crested wavelets rushest, 
Bear me on thy waters dancing. 
On thy whirling eddies glancing ; 
Let the fair ones come a-washing, 
Let the black-eyed come a-bleaching ; 

The River and the Lover. 93 

Let me here my old love find, 
Who to sufTring me consigned ; 
Then I'll wash her body small, 
Till come from me the poison all. 



•O ^'oy.vfirro; x/* 6 K/VffaCoj rob duh /3ouua fiaXbmy^ 
Tvpi^ 6 yspo "OXufiToi xa) \iysi roD K/0'tf(£Cou. 

(Oral Version}) x. r. x. 

OLYMPOSold and Kissavos,the mountains great, disputed ; 
Olympos turns him round, and says to Kissavos says he, 

With me you dare to wrangle, you, Turk-trodden 

Kissavos, you ! 
With me, Olympos old renowned, renowned e'en to the 

I seventy mountain-summits have, and two-and-sixty 

fountains ; 
To every bush an Armatole, to every branch a Klephte. 
And perched upon my highest peak there sits a mighty 

eagle ; 
A mirror, in his talon grasped, he holds on high exalted, 
And in it he his charms admires, and on his beauty gazes !' 

^ After weeks of Brigand-hunting, we were ascending Olympus 
from the Pass of Petra, in the glorious sun-filled atmosphere of an 
August morning ; and when near the probable site of the more 
ancient Pelasgian Sanctuary of the Olympian Dodona, my servant 
Demosthdnes burst out with this Song, the last lines of which, how- 
ever, he but imperfectly remembered. By the treachery of our 
guides, in league probably with the Brigands, the detachment of 
twenty infantry and two troopers, under a Yuz-bashi, got dispersed, 
and we narrowly escaped capture during the night which was spent 
on the mountain. But some two or three days later, our hostess at the 
village of Litoch6ri, above the Plain of the Muses, completed my 
servant's version of the Song. And there and then, with the help 
of Demosthdnes, as much friend as servant, I made the translation 
here given. The three last lines seem to me a splendidly bold 
poetic way of saying that there is a magnificent view from the 
* highest peak ' ot Olympos. 

94 Greek Folk-Songs. 






Xoicrog ytvvarai 6f}fLt^0¥ iv Bfi^Kufi rij voku^ 

{Aravandinos, 151.) 

This day in Bethlehem's famous town is Christ our 

Saviour born ; 
The heavens rejoice and earth is glad upon this happy 

In stable lowly He's brought forth, laid in a horse's stall, 
The King and the Creator, and the choir of Angels all 
Sing to the Holy Trinity, * Praise be to Highest God, 
That over all the earth shall now be spread the faith 

From out of Persia Magi three were coming on their way. 
Led by a shining star that failed them not by night or 

And on to Bethlehem they go, and ask, with anxious 

Where Christ is bom ; for Him they seek, and Him they 

fain would find. 
When of the Christ-child's birth he heard, then troubled 

was the King ; 
Possessed with rage, he said, they must to him the Magi 


^ Having been unable to get any more satisfactory explanation of 
this plural, I would suggest that it may be a survival of the old 
conception of the Sun-Gods as reborn every year. 

For the Feast of tJie Christ-Births. 95 

The Magi came ; he asked of them where Christ to seek 

the/d go ? 
* In Bethlehem, in Bethlehem, the Scripture sjiith, we 

Saith he : * Go ye and find Him me, go ye and find this 

Lord ; 
And when ye Him have worshipped there, then come and 

bring me word.' 
For he himself would also go to worship and to pray, 
With the most wicked treachery intending him to slay. 
The Magi went with hastening feet, and when they saw 

the Star 
Descend upon a lowly cave, they hurried from afar. 
And, entering in the cave, they saw the Virgin Mother 

Within her arms and on her breast she held the holy Child. 
They lowly bend and worship Him, to Him their gifts 

they bring. 
The gold and frankincense and myrrh, and praise to God 

they sing. 
When they had worshipped the Christ, they turned them 

back again. 
To carry to King Herod word their search had not been 

An angel out from heaven came down, he said they must 

not go ; 
Another road he bade them take, another path did show. 
The Magi came not. Herod saw his orders had been 

He said : * In Bethlehem's town shall not a single child 

And fourteen thousand, in one day, they fourteen 

thousand killed ; 
With lamentation, tears, and woe, was every mother filled. 

96 Greek Folk-Son^s. 



Dajr^ X/jSav/ xal xfpi, X^f^' ^^^ xaiKafiapi, 

X. r. X. 

{Passow^ 296.) 

Saint Basil, see, is coming out, from Cesaraea coming ; 
He carries incense in his hand, and candle, ink, and paper. 
The ink upon the paper writes, the paper likewise askshim : 

* Whence, Basil, comest thou, O whence, and whither art 

thou wending ?* 
*Fve from my mother come away, and now to school 
I'm going.' 

* O sit and eat, and sit and drink, and sit and sing thou 

for us !' 

* Tis only letters that I learn, of singing I know nothing.' 

* O then your letters well you know, say us your 

Alpha, Beta !' 
He leant him there upon his staff, to say his Alpha, Beta, 
And though the staff was dry and dead, it put forth buds 

and branches ;^ 
And from the branches forth there gushed and flowed 

out freshest fountains. 
And all the birds came flying down to wash and preen 

their plumage ; 
And with them came his sire to bathe, his aged, aged 


* For thee, my father, it were meet, to seat thee on a carpet. 
And counting out with thy right hand, and with thy left 

hand lending. 
More meet by far 'twould be for thee wert thou on horse- 
back seated, 

1 Sec note, p. 123. 

Saint Easily or the New Year. 97 

And see that thou touch not the ground wher passing 

through the river. 
More meet by far 'twould be for thee to pass o'er in a 

And that the cordage of the ship should all with gold be 

Much have I spoken of my sire, now let me praise my 

mother ; 
A lady with a marble neck, a crown upon her forehead. 
In Basil's chamber they have limned, and thus thy 

portrait painted. 
Thou hast a son who letters learns, who learns to use his 

And may God's blessing rest on him, and may he wear 

the cassock. 
Thou hast a lovely daughter too, a maid without a 

blemish ; 
She's neither in the city seen, nor e'en in Cesarasa.' 



loannina {John the Baptist Town). 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 153.) 

O COME and learn the wonder great, the wonder great 

that happened. 
How Christ did condescend for men, and much for them 

did sufTer. 
And then went down to Jordan's brink, and into Jordan's 

With the command to be baptized, baptized by John 

the Baptist 

98 Greek Folk-Songs. 

* Come, O My John, come hither now, come and do thou 

baptize Me, 
For in this awful wonder thou may'st serve Me and 
attend Me/ 

* My Lord ! O no, I cannot look, cannot look on Thy 

Nor can I gaze upon the Dove that o'er Thy head is 

My Lord I O no, I cannot touch Thee from above 

For the wide earth and all the heavens submit them to 

Thy orders.* 

* Come, O My John, come unto Me, and linger thou no 

To this great mystery we perform thou shalt become the 

Then John baptized his Lord forthwith, that might be 

cleansed and purged 
The sin that Adam first had sinned, and that it might 

be cancelled ; 
And to confound the Enemy, to foil the thrice accurs&l 
Beguiler of mankind, that he in hell may dwell for even 



KaXfiD; ((Tcb;) ijiipa/tfy r^y d^f yr/a era;. 

X. r. >« 

{Passow, 304 a.) 

Good day ! and may a glad year for you shine. 
And glad are we to meet you, masters mine ; 

1 Sung by children at house-doors. 

Vaia, or Palm Sunday. 99 

The nightingales are singing in the trees, 

The swallows spread their wings upon the breeze. 

O bring me balsams, lemon-trees now bring, 

And plant them in the gardens now 'tis spring ; 

The gardens of these lordly houses gay, 

Which breathe forth sweetest scents by night and day.'rus has come, the eve of Passion Week, 
Come, too, has He, the Virgin's Son so meek ; 
And Martha, joyful. Him goes forth to meet, 
She-worships, lowly bending at His feet. 

Lord, yesterday from us our Laz'rus fled. 
And lies within the cave among the dead. 
O grieve with me, the grieving one. 
And pity me, the pitying one. 

And raise for me my brother from the grave. 
My brother dead, whom yet my heart doth crave. 

And many other things to you I'd say. 
My lords and ladies, on this day ; 
Long may you live, and fruitful may you be, 
In coming years I 


HAH £12 TA 2£nTA HABH. 


KaXh (Jvai 1^ "Ayiog 6 BcoV, xaX^ iJvcu v& rh Xtvi, 

Sirov rh Xiysi cuivirouy oirou r dxoiti otytd^tt, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 157.) 
O GOOD is He, our holy God, and good it is to say it ; 
And whoso says it, he shall live, and he who hears is 

sainted ; 
And he who lists and understands, in paradise shall enter. 
Away in far Jerusalem, upon the tomb of Jesus, 

* Literally, * sacred.' 


Greek Folk-Songs. 

Erst not a tree was seen to grow, and nowa tree is growing : 
For Christ our Saviour is that tree, its branches the 

Apostles ; 
Its green leaves are the Martyrs meek, its spreading roots 

the Prophets, 
Who prophesied and said to men what Christ would 

come to sufii;r. 
My Christ, and Thou hast borne the pain, and borne the 

suffering grievous, 
When martyrized and tortured Thee those cuist and 

sinful Hebrews, 
The unbelieving wicked men. a thousand times accurst ! 
Unto the Smith they hurried them, for three great nails 

they wanted ; 
And he, that day, not only three, but five nails for them 

' O Smith and Master-craftsman, say, what wouldst 

thou with these five nails Y 
I'll tell you why I made them, sirs, and this request 

fulfil me : 
The two you through His feet shall drive, two through 

His hands you'll fasten ; 
The fifth and longest of them all you through His heart 

will thrust me. 
That out may flow the blood and gall, yea, flow from out 

His vitals." 
And when the Panaghfa heard, she sank to earth and 

O bring ye meat, and bring ye wine, and light cakes 

bring ye to her. 
That I may show the Comforter to all unhappy mothers. 
To all the grieving sisters, and to all the grieving brothers ; 
That they go not to hang themselves, nor take a knife 
to slay them. 

For the Great Friday. 



Tb» vfonux^t Ttii ixa/in yia, ri /Mt»yftti njs. 

X. r. X. 

The Panaghfa sits alone, alone she sits and lonely ; 
She prays, and all her prayers are for her only Son 

A noise she hears, and tumult loud, and very great 

confusion ; 
And forth she comes outside her door, and from her 

street she sallies. 
She sees the Heavens darkened o'er, and sees the Stars 

all tearful ; 
She sees the bright Moon in the sky, in tears the 

dear Moon swimming ; 
St, John she sees, who comes to her, he weeps, his 

breast he's beating. 
And in one hand he holds the hair torn from his head 

in anguish. 
The other holds a handkerchief that with his tears is 

' Now tell me, tell me, my St John, O my St. John, now 

tell me, 
Hast thou not seen mine only Son, hast thou not seen 

thy Teacher ?' 
' I have no mouth to tell of it, nor lips have I to speak it 1 
Nor can my breaking heart endure to share with thee 

the tidings ; 
But, as thou askest me of this, so let me even tell thee. 
See'st thou that hill, see'st tiiou that hill, that hill both 

broad and lofty ? 


I02 Greek Folk-Songs. 

There have the Hebrews thrust Him forth, thrust Him 

all bound and pinioned ; 
Laid hands on Him as on a thief, and as a murderer led 

And when our Lady heard these words she swooned 

away and fainted. 
They jars of water poured on her, three jars of musk 

they emptied, 
And afterwards rose-water sweet,until she was recovered- 
And when our Lady spake again, these were the words 

she uttered : 
' Let Martha come, and Mary come, Elizabeth come with 

Let them come where He may be found before they 

crucify Him, 
Before they thrust the nails in Him, before they yet have 

slain Him !' 
As they were journeying on the road, and on the road 

were passing. 
Long time our Lady wept, she wept, long time was she 

And by a Gipsy smith they passed, a smith who nails was 


* Thou dog, thou Gipsy dc^,*^ said she, * what is it thou 

art doing?* 

* They're going to crucify a man, and I the nails am 

They only ordered three of me, but five I mean to 

make them ; 
Two for his two knees I design,two for his hands I fashion. 
The fifth, the sharpest of the five, within his heart 

shall enter.' 

^ Gipsies are generally credited in the East with being ready for 
any base work. See below^ p. 231. 

For tJie Great Friday. 103 

* Thou dog, thou Gipsy dog/ said she, * henceforth make 

thou no ashes. 
If thou henceforth shalt ashes make,, the wind shall 

whirl them from thee.' 
And then her way she took again unto the Door of 

The doors were fast shut every one, they fastened were 

with boulders ; 
But from their fear they opened wide, all of themselves 

they opened,^ 
And entered there our Lady in, with tears and lamentation. 
There stood the Hebrews all around, they all around 

were standing, 
One spat on Him, one water threw, and mocked at Him 

She saw her Son upon the Cross, upon the Cross beheld 

Him : 
' Is there no knife to kill me with, no cord that I may 

hang me ?* 
And from her Son the answer came, and from the Cross 

He answered : 

* My Mother, shouldst thou slay thyself, then all the 

world would slay them. 
Have patience, Mdna ; then, like thee, will all the world 
have patience/ 

* Tell me, my Son, O tell to me, say when may I expect 

Thee ?' 
^ On Easter Day, on Easter Day, the Lord's Day and the 

Go, Mdna, go now, to our door, return among our 


^ Compare //. v. 749. 

' Self-moving groaned upon their hinges the gates of heaven.' 

Also Paradise Lost^ v. 251. 

gate self-opening wide, 
On golden hinges turning.' 


104 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Spread in the midst a table low, within our dwelling 

spread it, 
With mothers let the children eat, and children with 

their mothers. 
And there let all the goodwives eat, they with their 

worthy husbands ; 
Let all who love us there sit down, all who for us feel 



O ANA2TA2I2.1 
Ka/ ToTg s» toTq fiv^fias J^uiiv ^apt<rd/iS¥og, 

The Christ has risen from the Dead, 
By death He death hath trampled on^ 
To those laid in the Graves Life having given. 



AxoDcrrs r6 ri yhfixt et roiro ^aKouefAsvo / 
*Kx' firavs x* f^cuXf/a^i Ot^to xarapa/iivo, 

X. r. K 

(Aravandinos, 159.) 

O LIST and hear what once befel within a famous land ! 
A Monster foul had made his lair, and taken up his stand; 
And gave they him not men to eat at mom and eve enow 
To take the water from the Well no one would he allow. 
For that they cast lots every one, he who the lot should 

Must to the Monster send his child, a gift for his foul maw. 

^ During Easter, the usual salutation is Xf>t<n'^ Avitmi / (* Christ 
has risen V) to which the reply is *AXti9&^ ivken/ ('Truly he has 
risen*)—- a salutation which greatly impressed me when it was 
exchanged between passing strangers on the road. 

The Miracle of St. George. 105 


Then fell the lot upon the King, fell on his daughter fair, 
And to be eaten she must go, that maid of beauty rare. 
And then, with tears and loud lament, the King cries out : 

Take all my life away from me, but leave my child, I 

pray !* 
But with one voice the people say, and with one mouth 

they cry : 
' Give us thy daughter, O our King, or thou instead shalt 


* O dress, adorn her, to the Well then lead my child 

forlorn ; 
That when the Monster eats her, she may not be chewed 

or torn !'^ 
Away in Cappadocia far, St. Greorge hears, mounts his 

On his swift horse he rides apace, he's coming with all 

As o'er the road they hasten on, and pass with flying feet, 
Within a dreary desert place, they Satan chance to meet, 

* O great St. George, O great St. George, why such dire 

haste and speed ? 
Why do you spur your good swift horse, and forward 

urge your steed ?' 
' How, Satan, cursed Satan, how my name com'st thou to 

know ? 
I am a stranger in these parts, my family also.' 
And sorely whipping his good horse, he to the Well 

comes down. 
And finds the maiden standing there, like faded apple 

' O fly, O fly, thou gallant youth, for fear he should eat thee. 

1 He, no doubt, hoped that the stiffness of the embroidered and 
silver-ornamented national costume would necessitate her being 

io6 Greek Folk-Songs. 

That Monster fierce, that Monster fell, by whom I'll 

eaten be !* 
'Be thou not troubled, damsel mine, nor yet be thou 

But on the name of our bless'd Lord thy thoughts be 

firmly stayed.' 
Then he alights and lays him down to take a little sleep, 
Until the Monster shall come up from out that Fountain 

When forth the Monster came the hills did shake and 

were afraid,^ 
And from her fright all deadly pale and bloodless stood 

the maid. 

* Awake! arise, O gallant youth, for, see, the water's 

fretting ; 
The Monster grinds his jaws ; his teeth, his teeth for me 

he's whetting !' 
He quickly mounts upon his horse, with spear in hand he 

Soon from the Monster's open mouth a bloody fountain 


* See, maiden, I've the Monster slain, go back unto thy kin, 
That all thy friends and folk may joy, when thee they 

back shall win/ 

* O tell, O tell, thou gallant youth, O tell to me thy name, 
That I may gifts for thee prepare, and send my lord the 

'They call me George where I at home in Cappadocia 

But let thy offering be a church, if gifts to me thou'dst 


And set a picture in the midst, a horseman let it bear, 

A horseman who a Monster slays, slays with his good 

stout spear.' 

^ See note, p. 84. 

The Vow to St. George. 107 


'Eva iMxpl Toupx^ouXo mZ fiaiiKrfii f /r^ioeXi 

X. r. >, 

(Aravandinos^ 443.) 

A LITTLE Turkish yoiith was he, one of the Sultan's 

Who loved, who loved a Romeot maid, but she did not 

desire him. 
Before her does she put the hills, the mountains leaves 

behind her, 
Within the church she gains at last, she kneels and 

says three prayers : 

* Effendi mine, O dear St. George, O save me from the 

Muslim ! 
Of candles litras thee 111 bring, and litras bring of 

And oil in hides of buffalo I'll bring thee by the skinful !' 
There opened then a marble slab, within it hid the maiden. 
But see ! see there the Turkish youth is drawing near 

on horseback, 
And at the church door he dismounts, and there himself 

he crosses. 

* Effendi mine, O dear St George, now show to me the 

maiden ; 
111 bring thee candles by the load, and by the load bring 

And by the shipful 111 bring oil, 111 bring it by the 

boatload !' 

1 08 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Now gapes the marble slab again, and there is seen the 

Then lifts she up her voice on high, cries loud as she is 

* O list, ye mountains and ye hills, ye vilayets and town- 

The Saint for gain has me betrayed, for treasure he's 
betrayed me !' 

Thessaly and Macedonia. 


X. r. X. 

{Kind 76) 

PerperiX, all fresh bedewed, 
Freshen all the neighbourhood ; 
By the woods, on the highway, 
As thou goest, to God now pray : 
O my God, upon the plain. 
Send thou us a still, small rain ; 
That the fields may fruitful be. 
And vines in blossom we may see ; 
That the grain be full and sound. 
And wealthy grow the folks around ; 
Wheat and barley 
Ripen early, 

^ In times of prolonged drought it is customary to dress up in 
flowers a girl, who heads a procession of children to all the wells 
and springs of the neighbourhood ; and at each halting-place she is 
drenched with water by her companions, who sing this invocation. 

Procession for Rain. 109 

Maize and cotton may take root, 
Rye and rice and currant shoot ; 
Gladness in our gardens all, 
For the drought may fresh dews fall ; 
Water, water, by the pail, 
Grain in heaps beneath the flail ; 
Bushels grow from every ear, 
Each vine-stem a burden bear. 
Out with drought and poverty. 
Dew and blessings would we see. 



lloL^axoKu tfi, Tianayiif xai divXoT^oexvvu tfi, 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandtnos^ 160.) 

O PANAGHf A, thee I pray, and twice before thee bend me, 
That thou wouldst give to me the keys, in Paradise to enter ; 
To enter as a living man^ to walk there strong and healthy. 
And see the rich men how they fare, see how the poor 

are lodged there. 
The poor sit in the sun's glad light, they bask them in 

the sunbeams, 
The rich are wallowing in the pitch, and rolling in the 

darkness ; 
And lying there is the Exarch, upon the edge supported, 
And looks across towards the poor, and thus he them 

beseeches : 
* O poor, take ye my aspra^ now, and give to me a taper !' 

^ The Aspra^ from &<nrpo^, white, was the smallest silver coin ; 
but the word was used in die plural for money generally, as pard 
{wapditf:), the smallest copper coin, now is. 

Greek Folk-Songs. 

' Here aspras are not current coin, and tapers are not 

Exarch, rememberest thou when we in th' other world 

Thou gav'st no alms unto the poor, nor helpedst those 

in sickness ? 
Exarch, rememberest thou when -near thou unto death 

wert drawing, 
Thou wentest not to evensong, nor often unto matins, 
Nor yet to holylitui^, which makes the world to tremble? 
Rememberest fifteen, ten thouchangedst. 
Didst mingle water with thewinc.and with the flour mix 

ashes ?' 

Charon and his Mother. 1 1 1 


r& rpia &xpa rod OupavoUj 

X. r, X. 

{Heuzey.p. 139.) 
Oh from the summit of Olympus high, 
The three extremest heights of Heaven, 
Where dwell the Dealers-out of Destinies,* 
Oh may my own Fate hear me. 
And, hearing, come unto me ! 



'O Xa^o; fxaXi^fliryf i^w <fr& ^f^a^ax/, 

Kai 4 /tai'va rov rh fXf^f, x/' ^ /tavya rov rov Xi^f/, 

X. r. X. 

{OikonomideSi r. 3.) 
Out in the little moon's white light, his horse was 

Charon shoeing, 
And thus his mdna said to him, and thus his mother 

charged him : 

* My son, when thou go'st to the chase, when thou go'st 

forth a-hunting^ 
Take not the mdnas who have sons, nor brothers who 

have sisters, 
Take not those who have just been wed, nor those just 

crowned in marriage.' 

* Where I find three will I take two, where I find two, 

one only. 
And if I find one man alone,him,too, will I take with me/ 

^ Al Molpai rwv Moi/mSv. 

112 Greek Folk-Songs. 




X. r. X. 

{Oikonomides, T, 4.) 
The Sun has risen clouded o'er, and dark is he and 

threatening ; 
Say, is he angry with the Stars, or with the Moon in 

Or angry with the Morning Star that's with the Star of 

Evening ? 
He is not angry with the Stars, nor with the Moon in 

Nor angry with the Morning Star that's with the Star of 

Evening ; 
But Charon's making merry now, he's keeping his son's 

wedding ; 
And boys he slays instead of lambs, and brides for goats 

he slaughters ; 
And he has ta'en the widow's son, no other son is left 

her ; 
And by his side she weeping goes, walks by his side 

lamenting : 
* O leave him, Charon, leave me him, and I will pay 

his ransom ; 

woe is me, I have but him, beside him I've no other ; 

1 promise gold unto the Earth/ piled heaps of pearls I 

And Earth shall wear them as a sword, and wear them 

for tophaiki, 
At this glad feast ye celebrate, instead of flowers and 


* Sec Introd,^ p. 14. 

Charon and the Souls. 113 


Tia^ tTvat fjLavpa rd ^ow& xai ffuxow ^oupxo/iiva ; 

X. r. K 

{OikanomideSf r. 2.) 

Why do the mountains darkly lower, and stand brimmed 
o'er with tear drops ? 

Is it the wind that fights with them ? is it the rain that 

beats them ? 
Tis not the wind that fights with them, nor rain that's 

on them beating ; 
But Charon's passing over them, and with the Dead he's 

The young men he before him drives, and drags the old 

behind him, 
And ranged upon the saddle sit with him the young and 

The old men b^ and pray of him, the young beseech 

him, kneeling : 
' My Charon, stop thou in a town, or near cool fountain 

That water may the old men drink, the young men cast 

the boulder. 
And that the little baimies all may go the flowers to 

' At no town will I stop to lodge, nor near cool foun- 
tain tarry ; 
The mothers would for water come, and recognise their 

children ; 
And know each other man and wife ; nor would there 

be more parting.' 

114 Greek Folk-Songs. 



M/a Xu/f^i) vtundtixiy vug Xdpo St fojSara/, 
Ttar t^u r6o\ii ifwd *dtpfovgf rhf Ku<rravr7Vo 71' dvrpa. 

X. r, X. 

{Passow, 413.) 

There boasted once a cherished one, she had no fear of 

Charon : 
For she had nine tall brothers bold, and Constantine for 

And Charon somehow heard of it, some bird the tale 

had told him. 
And he set forth and came to them while seated at 

their dinner. 

* Good greeting to you, drchontes. I greet you, noble ladies.' 

* Sir Charon, you are welcome here, Sir Charon, you are 


sit you down and eat with us, sit down and eat your 


* Tis for no dinner I have come, I came not for your dishes, 

1 came but for the cherished one, who has no fear of 

He seized her by her flowing hair, and on her back he 

threw her ; 
*Let go thy hold upon my hair, and hold my arm^ 

O Charon ; 
ril farewell to my mother say, and farewell to my sisters. 
And farewell to my father dear, and farewell to my 

Oh, mother, when comes Constantine, afflict him not, 

nor grieve him. 
But spread his dinner that he dine, and ready make his 

supper ; 
For I with Charon must depart, and he no more will see me.' 

Charon and the Shepherd. 115 


O B02K02 KAI O XA'02. 


AtfiiVTfig ixaraf^atvi 76 *¥a >)/9j>.6 mdytr 

Eip^f rh ^ias rcu ar'a^A x«/ roc nrj^d tou xdru.^ 

X. r. X. 

{Passow, 432.) 
From toVring mountain-summit down there strolled a 

young lev^nt^, 
His fez on one side cocked he wore, and loosely hung 

his gaiters. 
And Charon looked at him, he looked, and much was he 

displeased ; 
And seized him by his flowing hair, and by his right hand 

held him. 
' To take thy soul Tm sent by God, to take thy soul he's 

sent me.' 
' Let go thy hold upon my hair, and hold my hand, O 

And come and let us wrestle on a threshing-floor of 

And whoso of the twain is thrown, then his soul be it 

When the lev^nt^ grasped his foe, then out the red blood 

spurted ; 
But when he was by Charon grasped, with flesh were 

fed the mountains. 
' O Charon, I beseech thee now, take not my soul out 

from me, 

^ The peculiarity of the Samothracian dialect, as the scholar will 
remark, even in these two lines, is the elision of p. May this pos- 
sibly be owing to the known survival here to a very late period of the 
Pelasgian language, which seems to have been connected with the 
old stem of the i^olic, from which the Dorian and Ionian dialects 
branched off? Elsewhere X becomes p. (See Preface^ p. xxix., and 
Trans,y p. 80, note.) 

1 1 6 Greek Folk-Songs. 

For I have flocks of sheep unshorn, and in the press the 

cheeses ; 
And I have, too, a lovely wife, not meet to leave a 

And I have little ones besides, and they should not be 


* Thy flocks of sheep may shear themselves, and press 

themselves the cheeses, 
The widows can get on alone, and they can rule the 

* O Charon, I beseech thee now, take not my soul out 

from me ; 

Show me where thou thy tent hast pitched, and thee 
to it I'll follow.' 

' When on my tent thine eyes shall look, fear will take 
hold upon thee, 

For outside it is green of hue, within 'tis blackest dark- 

But open now thy mouth, for I will take thy soul out 
from thee.' 



Na Hn vtdau ^iXo, xai adip^o^otrh, 

X. r. X. 
{Oikouomides, B. 37.) 

I WILL go do;vn to Hades, with Charon I'll unite, 

And for my friend I'll take him, and brotherhood we'll 

And then perhaps some arrows, some arrows keen he'll 

That I, against those darlings, a deadly bow may bend. 
Who kisses did me promise, all three so sweet and coy. 
Then jilted me and cheated, as if I were a boy. 

Zahos and Charon. 1 1 7 



Me ha trtdipix* aXo^o, /ik ^pvffufJi»eitfi ffiXXa. 

X, T, X. 

{Passow, 433.) 

As Zdhos pricked along the road, in search of Hades 

The horse he rode was made of iron, and golden was his 

Step after step descended he, and steps again ascended. 
Earth saw him, and she shrank with dread ; and Charon, 

fearing, hid him ; 
^And all the Dead who saw him come assembled around 

and questioned : 

* Why, Zdhos, hast thou hither come ? What, Zdhos, is't 

thou seekest ?' 
' Fm hither come to see my friends, and then TU turn 
me homeward.^ 

* Thy golden saddle, Zdhos, say, hast thou another given. 
Who com'st whence there's no return, to regions spider- 
woven ? 

Here children are from mothers torn, and mothers from 

their children.' 
Then Charon's courage came again, and by his hair he 

seized him. 
' Let go thy hold upon my hair, and take my hand, O 

Charon ; 
And Zdhos* valour thou shalt see, and see if he will fear 

Then from his hair he loosed his hold, and by his hand 

he held him. 

And Zdhos wrestled sore with him, and three -times 

down he threw him ; 


ii8 Greek Folk-Songs, 

But Charon once more courage took, and by his hair he 

seized him. 
' Let go thy hold upon my hair, and take my hand, O 

Charon ! 
Again will I stand up with thee, do with me what thou 

' Come, let us go and see my Tent that there thou may'st 

recline thee ; 
Outside I hangings have of red, but black the inside 

As for the tent-pegs of my Tent, they are the hands of 

heroes ; 
The knots and ropes around it spread, are maiden's 

twisted tresses.' 


Avd$tfid Tov fl-oD rh i/g^ " r^adippa 6tv -srov/oDvra/," 
r'ddtpfia axi^ovv rd ^ovvd xai dhrpa ^tppi^6vovv, 

X, r. A. 

(A ravandinosy 4S6.) 
Accursed may he be who said : .*Can Brotherhood know 

By Brotherhood the hills are rent, and torn the spreading 

tree-roots ; 
Out in pursuit goes Brotherhood, and triumphs over 

Charon ! 
Two Brothers had a Sister dear, through all the world 

The envy of the neighbourhood, the belleof all the village; 
And Charon looks with jealous eye, and for himself he'd 

take her ; 
And to the house he runs and cries, as if he were the 

' Ho ! open, maiden, let me in, with me to go prepare thee ; 

The Rescue from Charon. 119 

For Pm the son of the black Earth, the spider-woven 

Tombstone P 
« O leave me, Charon, leave me now, to-day take me not 

with thee, 
On Saturday betimes I'll bathe, I'll change my clothes on 

On Monday morn I'll come to thee, I'll come to thee 

But by her hair he seizes her ; in terror shrieks the 

See where her Brothers follow them, among the moun- 
tain passes. 
They fast pursue old, Charon till they've snatched from 

him their Sister ! 



'Acro'\]/f ri /x' ivLnc% ri) fi,avpfi rj xapdidfiou^ 

X. T, X. 

{Passaw, 386.) 

Last night so sorely in my breast my woeful heart was 

That I awoke and asked of it, and once again I asked it : 
'O say, my heart, what is thy pain, why heavily art 

sighing ? 
Thou art not keeping the Bairdm,^ a hill thou art not 


^ In most of the Thessalian Songs about the * River of the Dead ' 
it is identified with the great river of Thessaly, the Salembrfa or 
Penei6s ; and according to Homer, the stream by which the 
Penei6s is joined near Temp^, and which flows from the gorge of 
Sarandiporos, has an infernal origin. See IntroeL^ p. 33. 

^ The ordinary phrase among the Greeks of the Turkish Pro- 
vinces for any national festivity which, being usually accompanied 
with over-eatingi is naturally followed by indigestion. 


I20 Greek Folk-Songs, 

* O it were better far to climb a hill with leaden burden, 
Than see the, marvel that I saw, that I saw late last even : 
The river swept two brothers down, with kisses inter- 
twin^ ; 
And one unto the other said, and one said to the other : 
" O tightly, tightly grasp me now, nor, brother, from me 

For, if we once should separate, we'd ne'er be reunited." ' 



F/a xartfsrs rpiyhpoi fiou vcb tdovfit ^cihg Xf (Vs/ / 

Moty Xf /Vs/ 0* xdXkiog row svirm^ rr^i faf/i,iXiag 6 'Xpurog, 

X, T, X, 

{Aravandifwsj 428.) 

Now sit around me, children mine, and let us see who's 

absent : 
The glory of the house is gone, the family's supporter, 
Who to the house a banner was, and in the church 

a lantern. 
The banner's staff is broke in twain, the lantern is 

Why stand ye, orphan'd children, there, like wayfarers 

and strangers ? 
And from your lips comes forth no wail like nightingale's 

sad singing ? 
Your eyes, why weep they not amain, and stream like 

flowing rivers ? 
Your tears should spread a mere around, should flow a 

cool fresh fountain, 
To bathe the dusty traveller, and give the thirsty water. 

Dirge for a House-Mistress: 121 



X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 429.) 

What is this noise falls on our ears, and what is this 

loud tumult ? 
Say, can it for a Wedding be, or can it be a Fe^t-day ? 
The Goodwife now is setting forth, to Hades she's 

She hangs her keys upon the wall, and sets her house in 

Ayellow taper in her hand. The mourners chant sad dirges ; 
And all the neighbours gather round, all those whom 

Death has stricken. 
Whoso would now a message send, a letter let him give her; 
She who a son mourns unadorned, now let her send his 

fin'ry ; 
Whosoason unarmed mourns,nowlethersendhis weapons; 
Write, mothers, to your children dear, and ye, wives, to 

your husbands. 
Your bitter grief, your suffering, and all your weight of 



'Etfu, To/d/ yH ixivfifftg v6i, 'rqic *c rb¥ xdrov K6fffJi.0f 
x/ afhiig rri fiavovXa (tou "rixp^, ^apoxafifiivri' 

X. r. X. 

{AravaftdtttoSy 432.) 

O THOU, my son, departest now unto the Lower 

122 Greek Folk-Songs. 

And leav'st thy mother sorrowful, heartbroken, and 

despairing 1 
Where shall I hide my pain for thee, how shall I throw 

it from me ? 
For if I throw it on the road, the passers-by will take it, 
And should I hang it on the trees, the little birds would 

find it 
Where shall I hide my bitter tears, my tears for thy 

departure ? 
If on the black earth they should fall, the grass no more 

would flourish ; 
If they should in the river fall, they would dry up its 

sources ; 
If they should fall upon the sea, the vessels there would 

founder ; 
But if I lock them in my heart, I quickly shall rejoin thee. 

EI2 errATEPA. 

T/a *?r%i fMU, "Ttg /tow, xSpri /j^u, TSrt va ffs ':ravTi^M' 

yob a *xamyoi ^o^^vo, m et Tamyo* ;^/>oyo / 

X. r. X, 

{AravandinoSy 435.) 

* O TELL me, tell me, daughter mine, how long shall I 

await thee ; 
Say, six months shall I wait for thee, or in a year expect 

thee ? 
Six months — it is a weary time ; a year — it is unending !* 
' My mother, were it but six months, or were it but a 

Then would the evil be but small, the time would fly full 

Now will I tell thee, mother mine, when to expect 

my coming : 

Dirge for a Daughter. 1 2 3 

When thou shalt see the ocean dry, and in its place a 

garden ; 
When thou shalt see a dead tree sprout, and put forth 

leaves and branches ^ 
When thou shalt see the raven black, white-feathered 

like a pigeon/ 



Afy rllj^ip\ adtpfoZXd /aov, ^u; rSt^sg yob ^nfidvYtg, 
V Tfiv IIoX' yA gru\u yi aXa^o, 'g rj) Bfyir/d y) dfid^t, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandifws, 437.) 

I Klfew not, little sister mine, that thou to death wert 

destined ; 
ToStamboul I'll for horses send, and for a hearse to Venice, 
To Corinth will I send to find, to find and bring me 

That they may marble hew for thee, and build a 

O masons, build it long and wide, and build it proud and 

That she may stand and gird herself, or she may cross- 
legged rest her ; 
And in the wall at her right hand leave her an open 

That she may see when comes the spring, may see when 

shines the summer, . 
When warble all the birds around, the nightingales 

of springtide. 

* Compare //. A. 234. * Verily by this staff that shall no more 
pat forth leaf or twig, seeing it hath for ever left its trunk.' 

124 Greek Folk-Songs. 


£12 NEON STZrrON. 

napaxaXcD tfi yoLft fJiOM^ xou bt'Tc'ko'xptiSxtm <», 

rh vithv avrhv croD xdXtfftg /i^ rhy 'rapaxparfjffTjgy 

X. r. >.. 

{Aravandinos^ 430.) 

' O Charon mine, I beg of thee, and twice Til bow before 

thee ; 
The youth whom thou hast bid to thee, thou wilt not 

keep him alway ; 
For he a wife has all too young ttat she be left a widow. 
For if she briskly walk they'll say : " She seeks another 

husband !" 
If she walk softly then they^l say: "It is but affectation !" 
A little son, too, is his care, a baby in the cradle/ 
* No mother dear of his am I, nor yet am I his sister. 
The son of the black Earth am I, the spider- woven marble ; 
And youths I eat, and maids devour, and young men are 

my quarry. 
I eat the bridelings with their coins, the bridegrooms 

flower-becrown^d ; 
And now IVe waited forty days, this withered straw to 

And on the fortieth day and last shall all his ties be 



Mia XQpfi Tixporpd'yovdti awdvov \ to yt^lpi 
xai TO ytfvpt tppdytfst xai rh crora/t* hrdCfi. 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 473.) 

Upon a bridge there sat a girl, a doleful lay she 

The Young Widow. 125 

Which rent the bridge in twain, and caused the stream 

to cease its flowing. 
The Stoichei6n of the stream came out, and sat upon the 

margin : 
' O change, my girl, that melody, and sing another sonnet !' 
* How shall I change my melody, and sing another 

Who have a pain within my heart, for which there is no 

healing ? 
I had my husband lying ill, sore sick upon his mattress ; 
He bade me go up to the hills, and healing food to bring 

him ; 
He bade me bring him cheese of deer, and milk of wild 

goats seek him. 
And while I up the mountains went, and to the fields 

To set the pen and sheepfold up, and catch a hind 

to milk her. 
My husband married him again, another wife he took 

The black Earth for his wife he wed, a Tombstone his 

wife's mother.*! 



Tlk^a, \ ixf/Vo rl fiovn rroivai -^tiXh xai fiiyotj 

oTlti^ti dvrdpa *g r^v xopfi^j xai xara^vid '^ r^ fi^a. 

X. r. X. 
(Arava?idtnoSy 434.) 

Far, far away within that hill, which is both broad and 

Upon whose bosom thick mists roll, and fogs at its founda- 
tions ; 

Compare iph, in AuL^ 461. ' Hades, as it seems, will speedily 
attend on her nuptials.' 

126 Greek Folk'Sonf[s. 

Wild amaranths bud tltere and bloom, two other herbs 

beside them ; 
The roedeer eat them, and they die ; the brown bears» 

and they sicken. 
There, little mother, thou must mount, those herbs three 

thou must find thee. 
And thou must eat them, mother mine, and so thou 

may'st forget me.' 



IIoD ^po^tvtdiv tpipan fit; 6^ rn Ba^vXSivtt, 

X. r. X. 

{Passow, 518.) 

There came to the good mother's child, and to the 

widow's daughter, 
From Babylon a go-between in marriage to demand her. 
Her seven brothers all say nay, but Constantine is willing. 

* Why should we not wed Aret^, my mother, with a 

stranger ?* 

* But who will bring her back to me, that I may see my 

daughter ?* 

* I, I will bring her back again, and thou shalt see thy 

daughter ; 
Twice in the winter shall she come, and three times in 

the summer/ 
When Aret^ was wedded thence, and married to a 

Then died her seven brothers all, and Constantine was 

The mother sat all sad and lone, a reed upon the prairie ; 
By night and day she grieved and wept, she wept upon 

the tombstone. 

The Vampire, 127 

And tore her hair for Constantine, for her beloved Costa. 

* Arise, arise, O Constantine, arise, and bring her to me. 
And keep the promise thou hast made that thou to me 

wouldst bring her — 
Twice in the winter she should come, and three times in 

the summer T 
And God has heard her weeping sore, and listened to her 

sorrow : 
The tombstone cold a horse becomes, and the black earth 

a saddle ; 
The worms are changed to Constantine, who goes to fetch 

his sister. 

* A happy meeting, Aret6 !' ' My Constantine, thou'rt 


' Come, Aret^, let us depart — and let us go back home- 

' Tell me if 'tis for joy I go, and in my best I'll dress me ; 

Or if for evil I must go, I'll go as thou hast found me.' 

' Come, Aretd, let us depart — come just as I have found 

As they were riding on the road, a little bird was 
warbling : 

'O God, who art all-powerful, a wonder great Thou 
workest ; 

That there should walk a living soul, with one that has 
been buried.' 

* O listen, listen, Constantine, to what the bird is saying !' 
*Tis but a bird, so let him sing; a songster, let him 

And by the path, as on they rode, again the bird was 

singing : 
'O God, who art all-powerful, a wonder great Thou 

That there should walk a living soul with one that has 

been buried.' 

128 Greek Folk-Songs. 

And Aret^, who'd heard his song, which rent her heart 

in twain, said : 
*0 listen, h'sten, Constantine, to what the bird is 

saying !' 

* Tis but a bird, so let him sing ; a songster, let him 

And as they went along the road, and near the town 

were drawing : 
' Go on before, my Aret^ — go enter in our dwelling ; 
And I will go and sleep awhile, for Tm overcome with 

And sorely wearied am J too, and tired with my long 

'Come, Constantine, and let us go together to our 


* I smell of incense, sister dear ; with you I cannot enter. 
Once more within her home arrived, she joyful hails her 

mother : 
' I'm glad to see thee, ntana dear !' ' My Aret6, thou'rt 

But whom hast thou come home to see ? Wouldst see 

thy eight tall brothers ? 
Ah ! they are dead, the seven are dead, and Constantine 

IS murdered.' 
'Why, mother, now, our Constantine has brought me 

home to see you !' 
Then tightly they embraced and kissed, the mother and 

the daughter ; 
And they were left, those two forlorn, all sad those two 

and lifeless ; 
They hid themselves beneath the earth, the soil all spider- 

ThandsS Vdghia. 129 



Ilf^ fjiOM ri <rrixi<rat, Oaya^f], 6p6og, 

X. r, K 

( ValaoritiSy MwifUsMm.) 

' O WHY, Thandsd, thus dost thou arise, 
Corpse-like and speechless, erect Tore mine eyes ? 
O why, Thandsd, at eve dost thou roam, 
Find'st thou no sleep e'en in Hades, thy home ? 

* Over the world many seasons have rolled, 
Low since we buried thee under the mould ; 

Go ! for thy presence drives peace from my breast. 
Leave me, Thands^, in quiet to rest ! 

* Direful on me thy crime's shadow is thrown — 
See my condition ! Thands^, begone ! 

All the world flees from me, none will receive ; 
Alms to thy widow lone, no one will give. 

' Come not so near me ! Why frighten and daunt me ? 
What have I done thus to startle and haunt me ? 
Livid thy flesh is, and earthy thy smell, 
Canst thou not yet turn to dust in thy cell ? 

* Closer around thee yet gather thy shroud. 
Loathly worms crawl on thy face once so proud ; 
O twice-accurs'd, see'st thou not how they cower, 
Ready to spring, and me likewise devour ! 

'Whence through the wild storm com'st, trembling and 

See'st how the whole earth is rocking and quaking } 
Out from thy silent grave how couldst thou flee ? 
Tell me, whence comest thou, what wouldst thou see ?* 


1 30 Greek Folk-Songs. 

* This very night, as I lay in my tomb, 
Lonely and silent, 'mid darkness and gloom, 
Shrouded, bound, helpless, and turning to clay, 
Deep in my grave at the close of Earth's day, 

' Cried there above me a dread kukuvdghia ;^ 
Still did he call and say, " Thanis^ Vdghia ! 
Rise ! for the Dead Men will come thee to wake ; 
Rise, for away with them thee they will take !" 

' Hearing my name, and the words that he spake. 
Made all my rotten bones rattle and aliake ; 
Strove I to hide myself deep in the ground. 
By their revengeful eyes not to be found. 

' " Out with thee, traitor !" they cry in their ire ; 
" Out with thee ! thee for our guide we require. 
Out with thee ! fearful one, not as wolves seek we ; 
Show us the way to our long-lost Gardfki !" 

* Thus cry the Dead Men as on me they fall, 
Thus, as all wrathful, they scream and they call. 
Talon and tooth root up rank weeds and tear, 
Scattering the black soil, my corpse they lay bare. 

' Thus from the quiet Dead me they unbury, 
Out of the grave they quick rout me and hurry ; 
Laughing and gibing, they wildly deride, 
On to Gardfki we run side by side. 

' Fly we, and run we, all breathless and fast, 
'Neath us the fair Earth we blight and we blast : 
Where our black cloud passes on as it flies, 
Tremble the cliffs, and from Earth flames arise. 

^ The owl, the herald of the vampire. 

Thandsd Vdghia. 131 

' Flutter our winding-sheets now far behind, 
Flutter like white sails filled out by the wind ; 
Far on our path, 'neath the light of the moon, 
Rotten bones, falling, behind us are strewn. 

* Tore us went flying the dread kukuvdghia ; 
Still did he call and say, " Thinas^ Vdghia ! 
Near to the desolate ruins we drew, 
Where this accursed hand so many slew. 


* O what dread witnesses ! fear made me cower. 
Deep were the curses on me they did shower ! 
Bloody the draught was they forced me to drain ; 
See ! on my lips still the horrible stain ! 

* Gathering to rend me, upon me they fastened ; 
Then was a cry heard, and towVds it they hastened : 
*" Glad we're to find you, O V/zier Alf ;" 

Into the courtyard they rush without me ! 

* On him the Dead Men fall furiously ; 
One and all leave me ; then I, fearful, flee, 
Breathless I flee from them ; come I to rest 
Here with my dear wife, for one night her guest.' 

' Now that I've heard thee, Thands^, begone. 
Back to thy grave, though 'tis dreary and lone.' 

* Give me for comfort, 'mid darkness and gloom. 
Kisses three give me to take to the tomb !' 

' When on thy corse oil and wine they did place, 
Came I in secret, and kissed thy cold face.' 

* Years long and many have passed since that day, 
Torment thy kisses hath taken away.' 

132 Greek Folk-Songs. 

' Go ! for thy wild look my terror increases ; 
Rotten thy flesh, 'tis all falling in pieces. 
Leave me ! O, hide those hands ! For like to knives 
Seem the foul fingers that took those brave lives 1* 

' Come to me, O my wife ! is it not I ? 
Me, thy Thandsd, in years long gone by ? 
Do not thou loathe me, and thus from me fly !* 
* Go ! I'm polluted if thou comest nigh !' 

On her he throws himself^ seizes and grips. 
Close on her mouth press his cold clammy lips ; 
From her poor bosom, its covering rags, 
Tearing in fury, he ruthlessly drags. 

Bare he has laid it. His hand forward prest, 
Wildly he plunges, and runs o'er her breast. 

Turns he to marble, and cold as a snake. 
Shivers the Vampire, with fear doth he shake ; 
Howls like a Wolf, like a leaf trembles he, 
Touched have his fingers the All-Holy Tree. 

Her Guardian had saved her when helpless she cried, 
Vanished the Vampire ; like smoke from her side. 
Out in the darkness the dread kukuvdghia 
Still was repeating his ' Thdnas^ Vdghia !' 

1 Thdnas^ Vdghia was a Greek lieutenant of the tyrant, Alf 
PashdyOf loannina. When all his other ofificers had refused to 
massacre the men of Gardiki, eight hundred in number, entrapped 
by falsehood and treachery in the courtyard of the Khan of Valier^, 
Thdnasd Vdghia offered to begin the butchery. For this deed, 
according to the Greek superstition, his body, after death, could not 
decompose, but walked the earth as a Vrykolokas or Vampire, in 
company with his victims and the Vizier All, who had ordered 
their slaughter. 




*0 niii ii,i TO. \aywixa iZy^xi '( ro xvrijjri 
x' iitfarfi «otJ '( ri j^tpi nv ha fuKfi yffdxt, 

{Aravaadirtos, 340.J 
With all his greyhounds fleet around, a youth goes out 

a-hunting ; 
A falcon small upon his wrist he bears as forth he 

It frees itself, and flies afar, and In a garden enters ; 
But quick, his falcon to regain, the hunter follows after. 
A maiden fair within he finds, at marble fountain 

washing ; 
With whitest pearls she is bedecked, and strings of 

golden sequins. 
' Call off thy dogs, Sir Hunter bold, and tic them to 

the bushes I 


134 Greek Folk-Songs. 

I fear theyll bite me, Hunter bold — I fear that they 
will chase me.' 

* My little dogs are better taught, 'tis only hares they 

And ne'er to maidens fair as thou do any kind of evil. 
O tell me, tell me, maiden mine, what dowry canst thou 

bring me ? 
No dowry do I ask of coin, nor dowry of adornment.' 

* No dowry dost thou ask of coin, nor dowry of adorn- 

ment ? 
Then will I give this apple-tree, all covered o'er with 

blossom ; 
All laden, too, with rosy fruit, with fairest, sweetest 

' Thou, maiden, art the apple-tree, and now let fall the 

apples r 
She broke the strings, and far and wide her pearls and 

sequins scattered. 

* Come, gather, youth ! come, gather them, the apples of 

my fruit-tree ; 
And gather them again, again, and stoop again and gather!' 




X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 2ii.) 

Mine was the failing, idiocy, 
That lost my running's prize, ah me I 
I found thee all alone, I wot ; 
With kisses sweet I fed thee not ; 

The Neglected Opportunity. 135 

I gazed on thee unsatisfied, 
And thus I sat, by Love tongue-tied. 
Thy mother mild, where then was she ? 
Thy father stern, where then was he ? 
Thy mother at the church did pray, 
Thy sire at Ydnnina did stay ; 
And by thee sat the idiot meek, 
Whose downcast eyes the earth did seek. 



TlapaxaXoi tff, crtV^/xa, xal ^poaxvvv tfi, xSpriy 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 212.) 

O PARTRIDGE, I entreat of thee, thee I salute, O 

That thou the keys would'st lend to me to enter in the 

garden ; 
Carnations sweet, and lemons ripe, that I for thee may 

gather ; 
And I a ring of diamonds bright will send thee for a 

token ; 
In far Venetia it was wrought, and bought it was at 

And for the finger of my bride 'tis by my mother 

Thy mother dear I love full well, and I do kiss her hand 

I'll make of her a mother-in-law, and thou'lt be my 

sweet consort. 


136 Greek Folk-Songs. 



f X. r. X. 

{AravandinoSy 213.) 

Amid sweet roots of balsam hid, amid green basil's 

All wearied I lay down to sleep, to take a little slumber ; 
As on the ground I sleeping lay, there cam,e to me a 

vision — 
My love was being married, and her husband was my 

Twas not enough that she did wed, and did my rival 

But me they asked to crown them twain, as groomsman 

at the wedding. 
The golden crowns, too, I prepared, the candlesticks of 

silver ; 
The wedding veil I brought to her — it was with pearls 

My dream, should it be true, and she for husband take 

All may unto her wedding go, but I will to her shrouding ; 
All may to her take flocks of sheep, I'll lead a black 

cat^ only. 

^ With the hope of bringing ill-luck to the wedding. 

Tlie Nun. 137 



'Eva; XtCcynj; XiCivro;, u^/Aop^o TaWfixdpij 
fjkfiXo xpartl *g rh yipi row, "KiiUvi *g r^v vodtd rou, 

X r. X, 
{AravandinoSy 225.) 
It is an agile, nimble youth, a handsome pallikdri ; 
An Apple in his hand he holds, and in his lap a Lemon. 
The Apple, bending, kisses he, and thus consults the 

Lemon : 
*0 Lemon, little Lemon mine, i' faith I wish to marry.' 
* Young man, seek'st thou companionship, a wife art thou 

now seeking ? 
Go to the monastery high, where are the great store- 
There wilt thou find a worthy Nun, with three adopted 

' daughters;^ 
Pandghio is the eldest called, and D^spo is the second ; 
The third, the youngest of the three, Thandsio the black- 
Who golden coins and fairest pearls the livelong day is 

The siftings bright, both gold and white, she places on 

her bosom. 
That she may make her bosom smell of Summer and of 

Winter ; 
Of Summer with its cooling dews, of Winter with its 

comfort ; 
And of fair Spring the beautiful, with all her flowers and 

1 f^off^fMuc, literally 'soul-daughters.' The monks have "^tvxo- 
waMt^ * soul-boys,' many of whom afterwards become Bbhops and 
Archbishops, to whom marriage is forbidden. 


138 Greek Folk-Songs. 


Ai» (Tou rh il^oL^ exhWa xSpfi, 'g rh ytaXh fi,iiv xartCfiCf 

{Aravandinos^ 208.) 

' Have not I bid thee, she-dog's child, not go to ocean 

For wild and stormy are the waves^ and if thou'rt seized, 

thou'lt drown/ 
' If I am seized, and I am launched upon the angry sea. 
My body I will make a boat, my arms two oars shall be; 
And swimming still, thus will I gain that opposite fair isle. 
And there will I my lover find, there we'll the time be- 
I'd sooner die, in wild waves lost, if such should be my fate. 
Than here remain, by day and night, alone and desolate T 




To 'EXevaxi rh fuxpo^ diXTi^a va /Jkipi^M 

xai yd rh jSaXw 'g rh xXouC/, vdb rh fioif^orat^tt. 

{Aravandifios, 224.) 

Fair Elendki, my wee one, I wished to tame and 

lead her, 
A cage within to prison her, and there with musk to 

feed her. 
From fragrance rank of musk exhaled, and stifling 

odour shed. 

Offended with the cage was she, my nightingale has fled. 
The hours I pass in calling her, o'er hills I questioning 

rove : 

The Last liequest. 1 39 

' Have you not seen Eleni6, my faithless, faithless love ?' 
' But yesterday we her beheld, the reedy fields among, 
And there the wanderer beloved had perched, and sat 

and sung/ 
With fire I all the reeds consume, and all to spoil 

But Elendki, my wee one, has fled from me for ever ! 



"Oray 6s — fiaupd fLoxt fdtdria, 
orav 6iXui v* a^nddvu^ 
fitid 'rapa/yyoX^ §d xdvu, 

{AravandinoSj 219.) 

When dark Death, my black-eyed maiden. 
When dark Death his grasp shall lay. 
On my soul, this boon I'll pray : 

That they spread, my black-eyed maiden, 
That they spread, in heaven's pure air. 
My last couch, and wash me there. 

Let her come, my black-eyed maiden, 
Let her come and bury me ; 
Love shall then my sexton be. 

Let her see, my black-eyed maiden. 
Let her see, and let her know 
What it is has laid me low. 

Let her say, my black-eyed maiden, 
But two words, but two sweet words ; 
Lovers sad dirge these two sweet words. 

After that, my black-eyed maiden, 
Tears still on me let her shower. 
Ere the black Earth me devour. 

Greek Folk-Sottgs. 



x/ i>.>.nt two rfiyufiufa. ri Stuta ^avtii, 

(Arnvaiiiiinos, 243.) 
A WANDERER o'er the seas two years I've been.rvebeen; 
A wanderer o'er the hills, two more I ween, 1 weeo ; 
I leave the distant lands, and now my home is near ; 
But ere my friends I seek, I haste to find my dear. 
Within a garden, lo ! among the rosy bowers, 
She from a crystal vase the coolest water pours. 
An apple then I throw, of it she takes no heed ; 
I gold and silver throw, and now she's roused indeed. 
She raises her dark eyes, and angry is her gaze ; 
She opes her rosy lips, and then to me she says ; 
' Where hast thou, pouste ' vile, and base deceiver, been ? 
Nor last year, nor 'fore that, nor yet this winter seen ?' 
"In foreign lands I've toiled, with foreigners have wrought; 
All I, poor fellow, earned, to thee I've fondly brought 
I've brought a mirror, comb, and knife of silver white : 
The mirror in its depths to sec thy beauties bright ; 
The comb, with it to smooth thy golden tresses twined ; 
The silver knife to pare the apple's ruddy rind.' 


M«»« jiMu, xJp' i<reu xSha. 'yi 'f rfj ^ra/ii la i:>'mi, 

{Aravandinos, 221.) 
' Mana, a fair maid I have seen ; she washed beside the 

' A word originally Persian, buE borrowed by Greek and Albanian 
from Turkish. Sec DozON, Lansue Chkypc. 

The Widow's Daughter. 141 

Like silver bright her mallet shone, her slab was whitest 

I gave my gallant steed to her in payment for her kisses ; 
She hundreds, thousands still can give, and yet again 

two thousand ; 
And I her humble slave would be, a servant in her 

Sweep, widow, sweep again and oft, within thy beauteous 

courtyard — % 

Sweep, too, thy doorway, that, through it, in passing and 

Thy lovely daughter I may see, in musk so softly 

nurtured ; 
All hearts she witches ; mine, alas ! beneath her spell has 

* My only one, my daughter dear, is Sun and Moon in 

heaven ; 
The Dawn alone doth she desire^ as spouse to lie beside 




'AydyJ &yd\ta 'XtpTaru eav rh xofA/Atvo f f?5/, 
Mb fi^ yH axoutf* 17 Ttpdixa xai ^tra^rii xai fvyri. 

X. r.,K 
{Aravandinos, 222.) 

I STEALTHILY and silent tread, as soft as wounded 

So that the partridge hear me not, for then to flight 
she'd take. 

I come, approach the partridge hid among the thickest 

She flutt'ring shakes her wings and plumes her feathers' 
silver sheen. 

142 Greek Folk-Songs. 

* O say what mother gave thee birth, O thou enslaver 

bright ?' 
' For mother I a partridge had, for sire a thrush so gay ; 
In pigeon's plumage me they dressed and decked in 

bright array.' 



Kipy^^ orav tpXiirtfiaen vv^ra s^Var, 'xoth^ Abac t^ ; 

X. n X. 
{Aravandinos^ 209.) 

'My girl, when we each other kissed, the night had 

fall'n ; who saw us ?' 
* The stars of night looked down on us, the moon on us 

was gazing ; 
She, stooping, whispered to the waves, and to the waves 

she told it; 
The ocean told the oar the tale, the oar then told the 

And gay and loud the sailor sang, and all the neighbotus 

heard it ; 
So the confessor heard of it, and told it to my mother ; 
From her my father learnt it soon, and sorely he 

reproached me ; 
Hard were the angry words he said, and strictly he 

forbade me, 
Nor yet without the d oor to go, nor yet unto the window. 
But I will to the window go, to gather my sweet basil. 
And I the youth whom I love best will take for my 


The Rake. 143 



Fid /dftfn r& fiapyioXixo %a,l rh ih(Lfytt\%ik%n^ 
woig 9rpif%i ti fiovifrdxi row ffoiv yd ijVav ftdhs/iM* 

K r. K 
(Aravandinos, 233.) 

* Look at this cunning fellow here, so roguish he and sly ; 
See how he strokes his long moustache, and leers with 

tipsy eye !' 

* I am no cunning fellow, nor a tipsy rogue am I, 
My love she has forsaken me, and left me here to sigh. 
Bright yellow sequins forty, see, strung on a single 

thread — 
They're thine, Maroiisio, if thou'lt make with me one 
night thy bed.' 

'With fire be all thy coins consumed, and burnt thy 

sequins all ; 
My charms they were not given me within thine arms 

to fall, 
Nor are these eyes of mine so sweet, this neck as white 

as snow, 
That they with thee and such as thee should ever 

trysting go !' 



Ilfpa \ rh ^iiA^ *tf rh pfi/JiAniiri, 

dfirb$ 'a«vfatfi fd xwnyi^ 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 226.) 

Down on the beach of an islet lone. 
An eagle in search of his prey has flown ; 

144 Greek Folk-Songs. 

No stag does he stalk, neither hunts he the hare. 
He hunts but the black-eyed, the maidens fair. 
^ Lips red as rosebuds and sloe-black eyes, 
Look from the window and hear my sighs ! 
Wandering eyes, that are dark as sloes. 
How, without me, can ye sleeping close ?' 
* Braid I am weaving, nor may I stay ; 
When my task's finished, I'll not say nay.' 
Cursed be the braid, and the braider too. 
Cursed, who have aught with the braid to do ! 
I'll send a letter, when in thy hand, 
This be assured of, and understand, 
That when thou readest it, shouldst thou tear. 
Thou, my Light ! doom'st me to dark despair !' 



'A«i^/f x^uov Ixa^bf, x^uo xa< r^f/Murmvay 
*' »X'0Wtff7|xay rA j3oui»ei, <ra;^y/ffnjxa» ©7 xd/A'zou 

X. r. \, 

(AravanJinas, 228.) 

Cold is the wintry night, and cold the mountain-wind is 

blowing ; 
The hills are whitened o'er with snow, and all the fields 

are frozen. 
But you, my little gardens lone, do not you freeze and 

For I my lover dear have lost, my faithless, faithless 

Who swore when we so sweetly kissed that he would 

love me ever ; 
And now he has abandoned me, a reed beside the river. 

The Vlach Shepherdess Unkind. 145 

A reed from which the top's been cut, and but the stalk's 

left standing. 
At what gay table sits he now, where eating, and where 

drinking ? 
Whose are the hands pour out to him, the while that 

mine are trembling ? 
Whose are the ^y^ that gaze on him, the while that 

mine are weeping ? 



A/f 9^9 0/ X(£/6^oi y/db yff a, xa/ rob jSouvdb ytdk xJl^^iol^ 
xoU rob ytpdxta yi6t ^ouXio, x* iytitf j3Xa;^a fA\ yik tflva* 

X. r« X. 

{Aravandinos^ 235.) 

The fields are thirsting for the rains, and for the snows 

the mountains; 
The falcons for the little birds, for thee, my Vlach, I'm 

Thy hand so fair, so soft and white, thy hand so cool 

and snowy. 
Three long, long days, three long, long nights, I want it 

for my pillow ; 
Sweet kisses then I'd feed thee with, I'd feed thee with 

But, ah ! thou fleest from me, my Vlach, thou fleest, and 

hast undone me ! 
Up to the branches I will fly, and there I'll sit bewailing ; 
My weeping great a mere shall make, and flow out a 

cold fountain. 
For water will the fair ones come, and come, too, will 

the black-eyed ; 
And with them my Vlachoiila dear— oft shall I give her 


146 Greek Folk-Songs. 



pa m/Lt mpa at jSouvo, <^ ha /lap/JLapoCouvt^ ^ 

x. r. X. 
{Aravandinos^ 369.) 

*The time has come that we may go, the hour for our 

departure ; 
Now let us climb up to the hills, up to the marble 

mountain ; 
There will we find a hollow tree, in which we two may 

My Vldch, where shall we water find to drink when we 

are thirsty ?* 

* I have my gourd, thou hast thy gourd, and we can 

drink together.* 

* My Vldcha, bread where shall we find to eat when we 

are hungry ?* 
' I have my cake, thou hast thy cake, and bread we'll 
eat together.' 

* My Vldcha, when we feel the cold, what shall we have 

for covering ?* 

* My shepherd's cloak, thy shepherd's cloak, will cover 

us together.'! 


Hoipvtw V* Mle^w rit xXapidj x* i) ^a^ni 6\v f^&fiftt, 
UXa x' i/fl^ vflb 6* dpvfi^Stf xai Sk fk^ af iV w6$oi, 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinas, 234.) 

Now would the branches bud and bloom, but hoar-frost 
holds them prisoned ; 

1 * Come under my plaidie, the nicht's gaun to fa' ; 
Come under my plaidie, there's room for us twa.' 

Tlie Black-Eyed One. 147 

Now would I sit and spin for thee, but my desire 

prevents me. 
Arise, unto thy mother go, and tell her not to curse me ; 
I'll make of her a mother-in-law, and she shall be my 

Through thee, her second daughter dear, through thee, 

thou black-eyed maiden. 
Thine eyes are like the olive ripe, and like to braid thine 

eyebrows ; 
And like a Prankish bow are curved the lashes long that 

fringe them. 
Thy plump^ soft hand, so fair and white, thy hand so fair 

and snowy, 
Fain would I make my pillow now upon a marble 

mountain ! 
rd feed thee there with kisses sweet, IM kiss thine eyes 

and eyebrows. 
Still lower wear thy little fez, thine eyebrows let it 

For fear my kisses should appear, for fear they should 

betray thee. 
Lest jealous be the little birds, the nightingale of spring- 
Lest Basil 'gainst thee wrathful be, and wrathful too be 




X, T, 'K 

{Passaw, 532.) 
I CANNOT live when absent thou, 
Thou present, sickness lays me low ; 
Tis thou my life art stealing, 
Tis thou who art my healing. 

148 Greek Folk-Songs. 

I look on thee, I madly love — 
I gaze, my pulses wildly move ; 

My heart doth faint within me. 

No longer reason's in me. 

When absent, much I'd say to thee. 
Naught can I say when thee I see ; 
My lips refuse their duty. 
My tongue's tied by thy beauty. 

I look upon thee, and I bum ; 
And when I see thee not, I mourn ; 

Though mad ^en I bdiold thee, 

I die if thou withhold thee. 



{Aravandinos^ 37&) 
To the dance the fair ones go. 
Little boats to sea that row ; 
Out come troops of maids brown-eyed. 
Oranges in tassels tied ; 
Out comes many a black-e^^ed maiden. 
Who's with moles like olives* laden ; 
Out comes one with eyes of blue. 
Waist so slim and fair to view. 
Out comes, too, a partridge small. 
But with widest skirts of all ; 
As she danced and skipped around. 
One poor youth cast eyes to ground. 

* litenDy, 'covered with olhres.' For olires being btown or 
black when ripe, fXma (or cXv«), an olhre^ b the name given to a 
mole. See next psige. 

Blue-eyed and Dark-eyed Ones. 



^ufoA Ilk X«>»ll> XJ* ipfUfTU- 

*. r. X. 
{Aravandirtos, 379.) 
To the dance the fair ones go, 
Sorely lovesick I'm laid low ; 
Dark ones come, too, in ray sight. 
Girls whose waists are slim and slight 
Out, too, come the maids black-eyed — 
Curse them ! I for them have died. 
Still come those with eyes of blue, 
Wearing aprons green of hue ; 
Out, too, come the partridge-eyed. 
Flower bedecked, and rosy dyed. 


'Ariitfux mi piiTivi ri xXq/Mi '( n)r a!i\i ottu, 

X. r. X. 
{Aravandinos, 385.) 
May he be curs'd who planted there the vine within 

thy courtyard. 
Thy doorway filling with its leaves that I no more can 

see thee. 
Come to thy bowered window now, and from it bang thy 

tresses ; 
Let them a ladder be, and steps, that I may place my 

feet on. 
And I will kiss thee on thy neck, and on thy precious 


1 50 Greek Folk-Songs. 




X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 382.) 

Picturelike, dear garden ground, 

Bordered all with daisies round. 

Next the daisies leeks abound, 

Marjoram next in rows is found, 

In the midst an Apple-tree,^ 

Soon to earth 'twill falling be. 

To the fruit a youth approaches, 

Him the Apple-tree reproaches : 

* Come not, youth, the apples gathering ; 

See, the leaves are sere and with'ring ; 

Counts the master every one. 

And for thee, youth, there are none/ 



M($ip^ 4>payxa, ^fr^ayxocoDXa, 

K/' wfioppri r/ayy9joro<roDXos. 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 392.) 

* O THOU Frank, thou Frankopoula, 

Beautiful Yanneotopoiila ! 

Who has said I do not love thee. 

That in worn-out clothes thou'st dressed thee, 

^ By the apple-tree and its master an elderly husband is probably 
meant ; and by the desirable fruit, his wife. 

Yanneotopoula. 151 

And in soiled dress remainest ? 
Busk thee, busk thee, in thy gayest ; 
Come with me when evening cometh.' 
• Why with thee to come dost bid me, 
Who art faithless and deceiving ? 
With thy kisses, and embraces. 
One step more and thou wouldst blight me, 
Like the dew-drop on the herbage ; 
Like the wheatear on the meadow, 
Withered, left alone, and lonely.' 




ToDro rh Kokoxaipaxi 

xvvriyouea ha TouXdxi, 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 395.) 

All this summer, this long summer. 
One small bird have I been hunting ; 
Hunting been, and much desiring, 
It to catch in vain aspiring ; 
Snares I set, and birdlime lay — 
All my pains are thrown away. 
Other method I did choose. 
That my bird I might not lose. 
I began to sing a lay, 
On my violin to play ; 
Then my songs and violin 
Brought my bird my chamber in; 
I with my devices all, 
Caused her in my arms to fall. 

10 — 2 

152 Greek Folk-Songs. 



al fiidL /lap/iapivia jS^utfij. 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 397.) 

I ONE day a cypress planted 

Close beside a marble fountain, 

That to wash might come the fair ones, 

And the black-eyed with their bleaching. 

Came there one, and came another, 

Poor, but she with charms was wealthy ; 

She illumed the sea and fountain. 

* Maiden, where did'st find such radiance ?* 

' Chief of Klephtes was my father, 

War-chiefs daughter was my mother : 

From the Sun his charms they'd stolen, 

From the Moon they stole her radiance. 

They in two shares these divided ; 

I, from them, received my portion.' 



X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 396.) 

All the maidens here I see. 
All but her who's dear to me. 
Water she has gone to bring ; 
I'll go seek her at the spring. 

Distichs. 153 

There will I her pitcher crack ; 
Empty-handed she'll go back. 
Her mother asks when she gets home, 
What of her pitcher has become. 

* I tripped, my mother, near the well, 
And broke my pitcher as I fell/ 

• It was no tripping broke your jug, 
But likelier far some gallant's hug !' 


{Passow^ 103.) 

Before thy doorway as I pass, thy ootprint there I know; 
I bendi and fill it with the tears that, as I kiss it, flow. 

{Aravandinos^ 214.) 

Love me as I am loving thee — as I desire, desire me; 
The time may come for thy desire when I no more 
desire thee. 

{AravandinoSy 234.) 

Be curst thou, plane-tree, curst be thou and thy wide 

branches green, 
The pallikars no longer can by Eleni6 be seen. 




M/x^i) Bohpydpa Aipsf^i ^ wk xo^ri Kpt^dpi^ 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 281.) 
There reaped a little Bulgar girl amid a field of barley ; 
Her sickle was of damascene, her binds were all of silver. 

1 54 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Right briskly did she reap the grain, but soon her heart 

was aching. 
Upon her reaping-hook she leaned, that she might bear 

her baby, 
And in her apron folding it. to bury it she hastened. 
A Partridge met her on the way, at four cross-roads she 

met her : 
Where goest, Bourgdra, with the child — the child where 

wouldst thou bury? 
Say, is it not a cruel sin, thou rock'st it not in cradle ? 
Twelve birdlings have I in my nest, and I have not 

killed any; 
And one, an only one is thine^ and him wilt thou not 

cherish ?' 
'But thou, twelve birdlings if thou hast, thou hast them 

with thine honour ; 
And I, if I have only one, it is without a husband.' 
* Alas for her who murder does that she her shame may 




X, r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 408.) 

O LITTLE Rose-tree mine, so red, 

say, where shall I plant thee ? 

1 dare not plant thee in the sea. 
For I should fear the sailors ; 

I dare not plant thee on the hill, 
For fear thou shouldst be frozen. 
Oh, I will plant thee in a church. 

The Rose- Tree. 155 

In beauteous monastery ; 

And just between two apple-trees, 

Between two orange-bushes ; 

That down the oranges may fall, 

And in thy lap the apples ; 

And all their blossoms flutter down 

In showers upon thy roses ; 

And at th)- roots TU lay me down, 

Lie there, and sweetly slumber. 

Dancing Sofig, 


— /j.avpofifiaro\Jca xa/ §ai>tf^, — 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 406.) 

Whoever did green tree behold — 
Thine eyes are black, thy hair is gold — 
That with silver leaves was set ? — 
Jet black eyes, and brows of jet — 

And on whose bosom there was gold — 
O eyes that so much weeping hold — 
At its root a fountain flowing — 
Who can right from wrong be knowing ? 

There I bent, the fount above, 
Tq quench the burning flame of love ; 
There I drank that I might All me. 
That my heart I thus might cool me. 

But my kerchief I let slip— 
O what burning has my lip ! — 

Gold-embroidered for my pleasure ; 

Twas a gift to me, the treasure. 

156 Greek Folk- Songs. 

That one it was they broidered me, 
While sweetly they did sing for me : 

Little maids so young and gay, 

Cherries of the month of May. 

One in Yannina was born, 
Robe of silk did her adorn ; 

T'other from Zag6rie strayed. 

Rosy-cheeked this little maid. 

An eagle one embroidered me — 
Come forth, my love, thee would I see ! — 
T'other a robin-redbreast tidy, 
Thursday — ^yes, and also Friday/ 

Should a youth my kerchief find, — 
Black-eyed with gold tresses twined — 
And a maiden from him bear it, 
Round her slim waist let her wear it 

> Literally * Monday and Tuesday ;' but as these words are merely 
brought in for the rhyme, I have taken a similar liberty. 

Bridal Song. 157 




Parga and Priveza, 



X, r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 285.) 

Thou didst but sit upon the stool, when lo ! its wood 

all lifeless 
Thy beauty quickened into leaf, and flushed all o'er with 

The very deer made holiday the day thy mother bore 

For dowry the Apostles Twelve bestowed on thee thy 

Of all the Stars of heaven so bright one only thee 

resembles — 
The Star that shines at early dawn, when sweet the 

morn is breaking. 
From out the heavens Angels came, the Saviour's 

orders bearing : 
The brightest radiance of the Sun they brought thee on 

Thou hast the hair of Absalom, the comeliness of 

Joseph ; 

^ Literally, however, Bpaviov is but a ' stool,' and a * throne' is 

158 Greek Folk-Songs. 

t — ^-^ — ■ — 

He'll fortunate and lucky be, the youth who thee shall 

The Bridegroom's mother should rejoice, gay be the 

Bride's new mother. 
Who such a noble son has borne, a mate for such a 

What //Y?;if^«//^j made the match, who cinnamon has eaten,i 
When such a Partridge was betrothed, and wed to such 

an Eagle ! 




Karou '^ rA X/Cad/a, 
xa/ '; rc^ X/CadcbX/a 


X. r. >^ 

{AravandinoSy 299.) 

Down among the meadows, 
'Mong the little meadows, 
Come the mules a-grazing. 
Cool, and quiet gazing ; 
One is not a-grazing, 
Cool, and quiet gazing. 
' Mule, why art not grazing. 
Cool, and quiet gazing ?' 
* What enjoyment can I have ? 
Or what grazing can I crave ? 
I am going from my father, 
And am wan and withered ; 
I am going from my mother. 
And am wan and withered ; 
I am going from my brother, 
And am wan and withered.' 

^ The eating of cinnamon by the 7rpo|evjjn}c, or matchmaker, and 
the mothers of the couple, is one of the ceremonies of betrothal. 

The Young Bridegroom. 159 




<fs roDro r^ c^^p^oirotfcr/ro, rh fAapfAapo^rtff/AifOy 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 331.) 
Within these sumptuous lofty halls, with carpets fine, 

and cushions. 
Within this lordly, princely house, this palace built of 

A youthful bridegroom lies asleep, he like a lamb is 

sleeping ; 
And there's a maiden well beloved, and fain would she 

awake him. 
Should she upon him water throw, she fears that it 

might chill him ; 
And should she sprinkle him with wine, she fears 'twould 

make him tipsy. 
Sweet sprigs of basil now she takes, and marjoram she 

gathers ; 
Therewith she hits him on the face, and on the lips she 

strikes him : 
' Awake, O golden comrade mine, and sleep thou not so 

soundly ; 
The sun is high within the sky, the nightingales are 




cnjpa ^a^apofiiiybaXa '; rhv xdpfo rjj; ri pi^va. 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 337.) 
O SOUNDLY my beloved sleeps, and how shall I awake 

1 60 Greek Folk-Songs. 

I take of sugared almonds now, and throw them on her 

* My Partridge, thou dost soundly sleep !* * My lord,* I 

have slept soundly ; 
And in my sleep I've dreamed a dream — I pray thee now 

expound it : 
All saddleless I saw thy bay, and broken saw the 

saddle ; 
Thy gold-embroidered kerchief, too, all in the mud was 

*My bay — it means the road I take; my saddle — 

foreign countries ; 
My broidered kerchief all besoiled — it is our separation/ 

* Where thou art going, my hero, now, O let me ride 

beside thee ! 
That thou may'st have me ever near, before thine eyes 
for ever !' 

* Where I must go, my dearest girl, there beauty may 

not venture ; 
For I'd be murdered for thy sake, and thou'dst be taken 




'Sre^ ^fva vq,i^ XcCfvnj ^^u, tC ifiha tov u* afivs/g ; 
Tldpt X* i/Atvay ^dkt fig cav ^oDvra '; r* akoyo tfou. 

X, r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 336.) 

* My hero, wilt to foreign lands, and wilt thou leave me 

lonely ? 
Oh, take me with thee ! let me cling, a tassel, to thy bridle !' 

* What can I do, my well-beloved — ^what can I do, dear 

lassie ? 

^ 'kvQivTi {avQivTiKOQ, lordly, authentic), in Turkish, Effendi, 

The HusbancCs Departure. 1 6 1 

Thy hands are made of precious gold, thy bosom is of 

If thou wert but an apple red, thee in my breast I'd 

But thou'rt a full-grown mortal now, nor canst hang 

like a tassel ! 
And should we pass the hills across, the klephts I would 

be fearing ; 
And should we travel through the towns, the Turks I'd 

aye be fearing. 
At monastery, or at church, the very prior would scare 

At mom will I a goldsmith bring, and he shall twice 

refine thee ; 
A silver cup he'll make of thee, a ring and cross he'll 

The ring I'll on my finger wear ; the cup I'll ever drink 

from ; 
And on my breast the cross I'll wear, by day and night 




Kai ^apa^vt/im, 

K. r. X. 

{OikonomideSj B. 35.) 

My bird in exile far away. 
And lonely and sad-hearted. 
The foreign lands give joy to thee, 
And I'm consumed with longing. 
What shall I send thee, exile mine, 
And what shall I prepare thee ? 
Should I an apple send, 'twould rot ; 

1 6 2 Greek Folk-Songs. 

A quince, 'twould dry and shrivel. 

Oh, I will send my tears to thee, 

Upon a costly kerchief; 

My tears are such hot, burning drops 

That they will burn the kerchief. 

Arise, O exile, and return ! 

Thy family awaits thee ; 

Thy sister longs to see thee come ; 

Thy wife awaits thy coming, 

Her eyes all wet with weeping. 



'Ava^f/tdc stf ^ivfiTtioij xal ok xai rh xaXo cov, 

X. r. X. 

(AravandinoSy 343.) 

*0 HE would go, my comrade dear, away to foreign 

O be ye cursed, ye foreign lands^ you and your wealth be 

Which take from us our blooming boys, and send 

them back when married ; 
Ye take the husbands when they're young, and send 

them back when ag6d ! 
O exile mine, thy kerchief fine, why soiled dost thou 

keep it ? 
O send it me, my wanderer, O send me thy white 

I'll wash it thee in water warm, with soap I'll wash it 

for thee.' 
< The water warm where wilt thou find, and where the 

soap, my lassie ?' 

The Husbands Return. 163 

' For water warm I have my tears, for soap I have my 

My slab shall be the marble black — send, let me wash it 

for thee !' 



o nAAiNorrnN sTzxros. 

X, r, X. 

{Aravandinos, 348.) 

Day sweet in Anatolia dawns, and sweet the West is 

shining ; 
The birds unto the meadows go, the women to their 

And I go with my good black steed, I go to give him 

water ; 
And there, close by a deep well's side, I find a darling 

' My girl, for my black steed and me, I prithee draw 

some water/ 
Twelve pailfuls from the well she drew, and yet her eyes 

I saw not ; 
But as the thirteenth pail she drew, her head at length 

she lifted ; 
Then loudly neighed my good black steed, and sadly 

sighed the woman. 
* Tell me, my girl, why art thou sad, why sorrowfully 

sighing ?* 
' My husband's gone to foreign lands, and ten long years 

he's absent ; 

164 Greek Folk-Songs. 

But two years more Til wait for him, three more will I 

expect him ; 
And comes he not on the thirteenth, Til hide me in 

a nunn'ry.* 

* Now tell me what your husband's like, it may be that 

I know him/ 

* Oh, he was tall, and he was slim, himself he proudly 

A travelling merchant, too, was he, in all the country 
famous !' 

* My girl, your husband he is dead, five years ago was 

I lent to him some linen then — he said thou wouldst 

return it ; 
And tapers, too, I lent to him — he said thou wouldst 

repay me ; 
A kiss I lent to him besides — he said thou wouldst return 


* If thou hast linen, tapers lent, be sure I will repay thee ; 
But if a kiss thou*st lent to him, that he himself must 

pay thee !' 
' O lassie, I am thy goodman ; see, am not I thy 

husband P' 
« If thou art he, my husband dear, himself, and not 

Tell me the fashion of the house, and then I may believe 


* An apple-tree grows at thy gate, another in thy court- 

yard ; 
Thou hast a golden candlestick that stands within thy 

* That's known of all the neighbourhood, and all the 

world may know it ; 
Tell me the signs my body bears, and then I may believe 

Lullabies, 165 

'Thou hast a mole upon thy chest, another in thine 

armpit ; 
There lies between thy two soft breasts a grain, 'tis white 

and pearl-like.' 
' Thou, thou my husband art, I know — oh, come to my 

embraces !" 




Ktifiijocu, ^aiit/im fLua 

X. r. X. 
(^Aravatidinos, 163.) 

Sleep, my little darling one; 

Sleep, my sweet musk-nurtured one — 

Ndni-nani, ndni-nani — 

On his eyes, Sleep, softly lie — 

Nani-nani, tiani-nani, 

Or be whipped by mammy dear. 

Or scolded by his daddy dear. 

• Compare the recognition of Odysseus by Penel6p£, and of 
Laertes by his son in the Odyssey, ^. 

' NoWpHTfio, from tiavapi^u, to lull to sleep, singing Naw vavt, the 
equivalent of the English By-by, or the (far sneeter f) Scotch Ba-loo. 

1 66 Greek Folk-Songs. 


X. r. X. 
{Aravandinos^ 164.) 

O SLUMBER, washed on Saturday, 
On Sunday dressed in clean array, 
On Monday mom to school away, 
As sweet as apple, bright and gay. 
Sleep, the nightingale hajs flown ; 
To Alexandria she has gone. 
Ndni^ thou canary bright, 
Who my brain bewilders quite. 


Kouvifro/ rh yaplpaki^ 
xowiirai nai ^ affnAS 

JC r. X. 

[Aravandinos^ 170,) 

O ROCK the sweet carnation red. 
And rock the silver shining. 
And rock my boy all softly too. 
With skein of silk entwining. 
Come, O Sleep, from Chio*s isle ; 
Take my little one awhile. 
Ndni^ though no nightingale 
Sweeter is in any vale ; 
White as curd^ or winter snows. 
Delicate as any rose. 

Lullabies. 167 



Koifi^fiewy ^aJdifAVO fAOu, 

X. r. >.. 

{Aravandinos^ 165.) 

Go to sleep, my darling one I 

Something would I give to thee; 

Yea, a gift Td make to thee : 

Arta fair and loannina^ 

Arta fair and loannina. 

Give thee Chio with its vessels, 

And Stamb61i with its jewels, 

Ndni-nani, shut that eye ! 

Or with rocking I shall die. 

For Ralli's son, Sleep, do not tarry, 

He a General's child shall marry. 


T& 5/xo iiMi rh 9nu6i 

X. r, X. 

{AravandinoSy 171.) 

My dear child, my darling boy. 

Is silver and gold without alloy ; 

Other children of the street 

Are money false and counterfeit. 

My good child fain would I see, 

When a bridegroom he shall be ; 

ril rejoice when by his side, 

I shall see his own dear bride. 

II— 2 

1 68 Greek Folk-Songs. 



TT9Sy ToZ "Toupntg ra fitxpa, 
f Xa, wpt xai nvro, 

X. T. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 169.) 

O SLEEP, who takest little ones. 
Take to thee my darling ! 
A tiny one I give him now, 
A big boy bring him to me ; 
As tall as any mountain grown, 
And straight as lofty cypress ; 
His branches let him spread about ; 
From the West to Anat61ia. 



fi /Lata 9'oZ ^ iyvno.^ 

X. r. X. 

Aravandinos^ 166. 

O SLUMBER now, and she'll thee bless. 
The mother dear who bore thee ; 

He too, thy sire, who hopes to see 
Thy children grow before thee. 

O Slumber, come ; come softly now. 
And lie upon my wee one's brow ; 

O come, and in thine arms now take him, 
And in the morning sweetly wake him. 

Lullabies. 169 



Th ^aidi /Aou r atfT^o, V atrrpo 
r6 xaXrtfavfi *ffrh xdarpo^ 

X. r. >.. 

{Aravandinos^ 17^) 

My dear boy, so white, so white, 
The Kadi's daughters fair invite : 
They ask him to the Castle, where 
They honey-cakes for him prepare. 
Honey-cakes with almonds spread, 
Sweetmeats too with sugar red. 
Going, going ; he's going, he's going ! 
May the Panaghfa guard him ! 
Going, going ; he's going, he's going ! 
May the Christ watch o'er and ward him I 



\\dpT% TOy xftartTri to 
xi' 8\(f) rpayoudfti'i ro, 

X. r. X. 

{ArabantinoSy 179.) 

Take you him, and keep you him, 

All sing gaily songs to him ; 

He'll fly light as any bird. 

Like a lamb leap, 'pon n^y word ; 

Stare like any peacock proud, 

Laugh as any angel loud. 

Take him, dance him on your knee, 

Softly dandle him for me ; 

Bid him live, grow strong and tall. 

So to win the maidens all. 

170 Greek Folk-Songs. 



x' tl}^ fcva TtrTtyu 

X. r. X. 

{PassoWy 274.) 

There was an old man. 
And he had a cock, 
That crowed in the morn, 
And awoke the old man. 

But there came a cat 
And ate the cock, etc. 

And there came a fox 
That ate the cat, etc. 

And there came a wolf 
And ate the fox, etc. 

And there came a lion 
And ate the wolf, etc. 

And there came a river 
And drowned the lion, etc. 


MiA 7P1<^ xax^ y^^ 

Mf raTg xSrrati fjidXiun 

X. r. A. 
{Passow, 276.) 

One old dame, a bad old dame, 
Quarrelled with her cocks and hens, 
Quarrelled with her little cat. 
Tsit/ znd Xoof 
I say, old woman, where is your spouse ? 

Nursery- Rhymes. 1 7 1 

One old dame, a bad old dame, 
Quarrelled with her cocks and hens, 
Quarrelled with her little cat. 
Quarrelled with her little dog. 
Otist I and Tsit I and Xoo ! 

I say, old woman, where is your spouse ? 

One old dame, a bad old dame, 

th her cocks and hens, 
th her little cat, 
th her little dog, 
th her little pig, 
th her little ass, 
th her little cow, 
th her little hut. 
PAoo! Oo! Aal Youtz ! Oust I Tsit! XooP 
I say, old woman, where is your spouse ? 

Quarrelled w 
Quarrelled w 
Quarrelled w 
Quarrelled w 
Quarrelled w 
Quarrelled w 
Quarrelled w 


S&^afi,* ha yipofTUy 

X. r. X. 

{Passaw, 275.) 

We will have — what shall we have ? 
We will have an old, old man, 
Who shall dig our little garden, 
Where the roses gaily grow. 

We will have — what shall we have ? 

We will have a little donkey. 

For our old, okl man to ride on, etc. 

1 In the Levant there is a special exclamation for driving out 
each of the domestic animals. Tsit / for a cat ; X(w / for poultry ; 
Oust/ for a dog ; YoutMi for a pig ; Aa! (with nasal sound) tor 
a donkey ; Oo ! for a cow ; PHoo t for things in general. 

172 Greek Folk-Songs. 

We will have — what shall we have ? 
We will have a little wasp, 
That shall sting the little donkey, 
That shall throw the old, old man, etc 

We will have — ^what shall we have ? 

We will have a little cock, 

That shall eat the little wasp, etc. 

We will have — ^what shall we have ? 

We will have a little fox, 

That shall eat the little cock, etc. 

We will have — what shall we have ? 
We will have a clever dog. 
That shall kill the little fox, etc. 

We will have — ^what shall we have ? 
We will have a little stick, 
That shall beat the little dog, etc. 

We will have — what shall we have ? 

We will have an oven big. 

That shall burn the little stick, etc. 

We will have — ^what shall we have ? 

We will have a river wide, 

That shall quench the oven's fire, etc. 



X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos^ 188.) 
It rains, it rains^ and soon 'twill freeze, 
And the parson smells of cheese ; 
Where shall we put our lady bride ? 
Beneath the chickpea-stalk she'll hide. 
Where shall we put our bridegroom gay ? 
Beneath the cross he'll sit all day. 

' Nursery- Rhymes. 


AlXixcc, (Taofi X^'C^' 
/i^/ ilJie rii Wf (Carol y 

*. r. ^ 

{AravandinoSy 197.) 
' Stork, O father ptlgrim, say 1 
Did you chance to see my sheep ?' 
' Yes, I saw them yesterday, 
Grazing by the lakeside deep. 
A wolf came up and on them fell, 
A fox stood by in great delight ; 
The dogs did bark and bay right well 
The shepherd cried with all his might' 


X. r. X. 
{Aravandinos, 195.) 
I WENT to a good nun's storehouse. 
Which has upstairs and has downstairs. 
Oped the door and in 1 entered. 
There I found a wolf a-dancing. 
And a fox who food was cooking, 
A hare who on the lyre was playing, 
A weasel on a pipe was whistling. 
And a giant of a hedgehog 
At a tortoise eyes was making. 
And the tortoise was quite shamefaced, 
And within her hole she hid her. 
Then upon her bed I mounted, 
Found a cake and a round biscuit ; 
Milk beside them in a pitcher. 

174 Greek Folk-Songs. 



x' %%a^a Hv rmif ^v, 

X r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 198.) 

I A PINE-TORCH lighted me, 

To my pocket I set fire, , 

Which has echoes, which has wheels, 

Which has fields and mountains high. 

Trees upon the mountains grow, 

Branches on the trees, I trow, 

In the branches nests abound. 

In the nests the eggs are found ; 

From the eggs young birds come out, 

On the birds will feathers sprout. 



%. r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 191.) 

* Come down, O apple, 

And tell me true. 

What does the maiden 

That I love, do ?* 

* Braid she is plaiting. 

By night and day.' 

* For whom does she plait it ?* 

* For Yanni, they say.' 

Tlie Par softs Wife. 175 



Kopirtria, /I'sr&rt ffx^ ^oph vii fjkd^n rpayoubia, 

X, r. X. 

{OikonomideSy b. 7.) 

O MAIDENS, to the dance come out, and learn our lays 

and ballads. 
And see the broidered aprons gay, green aprons and blue 

aprons ; 
And see, too, how the Parson's Wife comes out among 

the gallants. 
The Parson follows close at hand, and at her side goes 

begging : 
' O most shortwaiting/^a^k^,i two words I want to ask 

thee : 
How canst thou leave our house unkept, and all alone 

the children ?' 
* Go, Parson, go, do thou go home — go stay thou with 

thy children, 
And I with the young men will go, and with the 

'I say, where are the Hierd, that I may chant the 

service ?' 
*The fire may bum the Hierd, the house, and thee 

within it !' 

1 llairaM the title given to the wife of a Uawdct or parish priest. 

176 Greek Folk-Songs. 


dutdixa ^ovovs *g rii BXa^idt, xai TpsTg jSpaduai; '; ro a^lri, 

X, T, X. 

{AravaftdinoSy 340.) 

Why didst thou, mdna, marry me, and give me a 

Vlach husband ?^ 
Twelve long years in Wallachia, and at his home three 

On Tuesday night, a bitter night, two hours before the 

My hand I did outstretch to him, but did not find my 

husband ; 
Then to the stable-door I ran : no horse fed. at the 

I sped me to the chamber ^ back, I could not find 

his weapons ; 
I threw me on my lonely couch, to make my sad 

' O pillow, lone and desolate ; O mattress mine, forsaken. 
Where is thy Lord^ who yesternight did lay him down 

upon thee ?* 
* Our Lord has left us here behind, and gone upon 

a journey — 
Gone back to wild Wallachia, to Bucharest unhappy.' 

^ The population of the secluded mountain valleys of Zagorie (see 
Introd.j pp. 26, 27) is, in considerable part, Vlach, and the men are 
famous tor their energetic enterprise in commerce during their 
customary years of exile. 

' 'Ovra, Turkish Oda. Rooms are made into bedrooms by simply 
bringing the mattress, etc., out of the cupboard. 

' See above^ p. 160, n. i. 

The Sale of the Wife. 177 



"Eva; %(iw\ti xovTOvrgtxog^ '^^^ St/ioppfi ywat^a^ 

X. r. X, 
{Aravandinos^ 280.) 

A MANNIE, a wee mannikin, once had a wife so bonnie, 
That all the neighbours envied him, and all the town was 

jealous ; 
But many debts the mannie had, -and he would go and 

sell her. 
He washes her on Friday well, on Saturday adorns her, 
And when the Sunday morning comes, to the bazadr he 

takes her. 
' I have a damsel dear to sell, she's fair-haired, and she's 

black-eyed !* 
The Widow's Son comes forth to see, and he the seller 

* Say, Stumpy, what's the beauty's price — ^how much will 

cost the black-eyed ?' 
' Two thousand for her upper lip ; two thousand for the 

lower ; 
Her precious body has no price, and it cannot be valued.' 
' Hold, Stumpy, hold thy cap in hand, and I will count 

the money.' 
He leads her to the sea-beach down, and in a boat 

embarks her ; 
The Darling seats her in the stern, and all the sails are 

swelling ; 
And that gay youth, the Widow's Son, embarks, too, for 

a frolic. 

178 Greek Folk-Songs. 



tfu^f, xa/ €rpun rht l9r& *s rh vipa cayjusdu^ 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 241.) 

' Arise, Maroiila, from the earth, and shake the dust 

from off thee ; 
Arise, and on the balcony now spread for us thy 

Go hasten, make us coffee, too, bring wine and fill the 

beakers ; 
And take and bathe thyself, and change, and don thy 

brightest raiment ; 
Then hie thee to the dance away, then hie thee to the 

That all the belles may gaze on thee, and all the 

There will thy husband see thee, who another wife 

has taken.' 
' And if I am divorced, what then ? Twas he who had 

the worst o't 1 
At two o'clock I'll to the bath, at four I'll change my 

raiment ; 
And out of fourtttn paUiiars I'll choose another husband. 
And then I will my house set up right opposite his 

dwelling ; 
And there beside his garden gay will I plant me my 

garden ; 
I'll come, and go, that he may see, and boil with rage, and 

burst him !'* 

' Him thus used for kimstif is common in English patois^ and 
may be allowable in translating this Grttk patois. 

The Old Maris Bride. 179 

H STzrros tot tepontos. 

Tp%7i abtppddatg f!fiaara¥ x fi rptlg ^avrptv^xdfiav, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 206.) 

O WE were once three sisters dear, and all we three did 

A King one to herself did take, and his Vizier the other, 
And I, the fairest of them all, I took a rich old fellow. 
They roasted at the Palace sheep, at the Vizieri's, 

poultry ; 
But rams and calves they roasted whole to grace the 

Ancient's 2 wedding. 

Uncounted flocks I found were his, and his were herds 

of oxen, 
Unmeasured vineyards, countless casks, and grain in 

great storehouses. 
But what, unhappy orphaned one, want I with all these 

Who on my mattress by my side such company must 

suffer ? 
Thou oldest man,^ thou stinking-mouthed, thou skeleton, 

thou blear-eyed ! 
Curst may my mother be ; and Earth, dissolve not in thy 

The go-between* whom she employed to settle my 

betrothal ! 

1 Compare Burns, ' What can a young lassie do wi' an auld man ?* 

^ The consequence of which would be that^ after death, the 
npoKivfirpa would become a Vampire. 

i8o Greek Fclk- Songs. 


H STzrros tot rEPOXTOJ. 

As [It papov¥ r& ^iva xai ra fiaxpuvd^ 
fiSv' fis papovv TTJg x6pfig ro( fifivitf/LaTW 

X. r. >« 

{Aravandinos, 207.) 

I WEARY not of foreign lands, of journeys long ; 
I'm wearied only by the message of the girl, 
Who sends me word by birds, and by the eagles swift : 
* Where'er thou art, my Exile, quickly, quickly come ! 
Because they have betrothed and married me, alas ! 
A husband me they've given, slothful, oh ! and old. 
About the mattresses I'm scolded every night ; 
At mom he drives me forth the water cold to draw ; 
A heavy pail he gives to me, too short a rope ; 
No water can I reach, though low I stoop and strain ; 
Of wool nine fathoms I have cut, a cord to make : 
Where'er thou art, my Exile, quickly, quickly come !' 




T* axou0/ta ^oi^;^' F/avraxo;, wou;^' it/nop^fi ^uva/ka, 
TovTav ^riX^ Tovrav X/yi'jj, crourav xayxtXofpvda. 

X. T, X. 

{AravandinoSy 481.) 

The fame that Yannak6s enjoyed — a lovely wife he'd 

Who slender was, and who was tall, and who had thick 

dark eyebrows, 

Yannakds, or tJie Assassinated Husband. 1 8 1 

And white as swan's was her fair neck, her eyes like 

eyes of partridge, — 
Syr6poulo made to set forth from Yannak6s to take 

As on the road alone he went, to God he said a prayer, 
That he might Yannak6s surprise upon his mattress lying, 
Barefooted and ungirded too, clad only in his singlet^ 
And as he prayed, so it fell out ; for Yannak6s was 

' Health, joy to thee, O Yannik^, I wish thee health, 

good morrow.' 
' Syr6poulo, thou welcome art, now eat and drink thou 

with me.' 
' I came not here to eat and drink, I came here for thy 

fair one ; 
Give her to me of thy free will, thy life if thou dost love it.' 
' To keep my head in safety, I five fair ones good would 

give thee ; 
I'd give to thee my mother first, I'd give thee my two 

sisters ; 
For fourth one I'd my cousin give, my much beprais^d 

cousin ; 
And last of all my crown I'd give, she who of all is 

But as he spoke ran Yannak6s, he ran his sword to 

fetch him ; 
Ill-fated man! he reached it not, before his head was 


1 IIocaf<i(rain, a diminutive fronvthe Italian camUa, 


1 82 Greek Folk-Songs. 



Tf/n} Ttrpd6fi SXi^ipti^ Uiprti papfi0axu/ii¥fi, 

Hapacxtufi *^riu,tpuSiV9 va /x* tJ^t '^iJAtfpw^i 

X. r. X, 

{AravandinoSy 455.) 

O SAD is Tuesday, Wednesday too, and bitter, bitter 

Thursday ; 
And Friday now is dawning, would that it had dawned 

Forth Kostas wends at morning light, and for to go 

a-hunting ; 
And to his teacher Johnny goes, that he may learn his 

A paper he at home foi^ets, and turns again to 

fetch it. 
And in the house a youth he sees, who's with his mother 

* Unfaithful mother, who is this ? And what wants here 

this stranger ? 
At evening when my Lord* comes home, all this I shall 

relate him.' 
His mother laughed, and mocked at him, and dragged 

him to the cellar. 
And like a lamb she slew him there, the b , just like 

a butcher. 
And now is Kostas coming home, home from a hard 

day's hunting, 
A living deer he brings with him, he brings a stag he's 

wounded ; 

^ See note, p. 160. 

The Child Slayer. 183 

And in a leash a little fawn, for little John to play 

' My darling, health and joy to thee ! where is our son 

now, tell me ?* 
' He went at morning to the school, and hs^ not yet 

He mounts his mare and rides away, and hies him to the 

' Ho, teacher, where's my little John ? are not yet done his 

lessons f 
* To school to-day no Johnny came ; I have not seen your 

Back to his house he then returns, but there he finds no 

He runs and seizes on the keys, and hies him to the 

And there he finds his little son, like lambkin finds 

him slaughtered. 
In pieces small he chops her up, chops up that she-dog 

And gathers up the pieces all, and puts them in a 

Away he bears them to the mill, like any madman 

running : 
' Grind now, my mill^ O grind for me the bones of this 

adult'ress !' 

* *• He cuttit him in pieces sma' 

On fair Kirkconnel lee.' 

12 — 2 

184 Greek Folk-Songs. 




rdpa ToD c^ffs xatpo, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 410.) 

* Out, now, maidens, to the dance ! 
Out while you have still the chance ; 
For very soon you'll wedded be, 
From household troubles never free ; ' 
When children round you *gin to grow, 
How to neighbours' can you go ?* 

*We shall beat them well, I trow; 
Leave them all at home, I vow T 

* Time to dance how can you take, 
When you have to cook and bake ?* 

* We will leave the bread to burn. 
All the meat to smoke may turn !* 

1 The most humorous Folk-songs are almost always too coarse 
for reproduction in translations — compare, for instance, Bishop 
Percy's Loose and Humorous Songs, But even omitting these, 
the Songs in this Section appear to be sufficient to refute the Rev. 
Mr. Tozer's remark {Highlands of Turkey, vol. ii., p. 257) that 
' of real humour . . . there is hardly any trace in their composition.' 
This fancied fact Mr. Tozer attributes to, or rather deduces from, 
the ' sad and serious condition of a people conscious of living under 

The Dance of tlie Maiaens. 185 

' You must sit at home and spin ; 
Weaving, too, will keep you in.' 

' Both we laugh at gaily, pooh ! 
Loom and twirling spindle too !' 

' Your husband you indoors will close, 
And with his stick he'll give you blows.' 

' The stick should have two ends, he'd see ! 
And we would have a second key !' 


TO 2TMn02I0N. 

nhafJMY xauxi& yio/Jkdra 
X* ti^afiav xai /JMupofifitdra* 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 411.) 

Drink we beakers filled to brim, 
With us black-eyed maidens trim ; 
Black eyes with us at our wine ; 
Black eyes from the windows shine. 

If I were a klepht I'd steal them, 
Or were cunning, I'd b^uile them ! 
To the market they should go, 
While the crier went to and fro ; 
I would sell them, I'll be bound. 
Sell them for five hundred pound 1 

But these eyes can not be sold, 
Nor can trafccked be for gold ; 
Truly given they ever are. 
To a worthy pallikar ! 

1 86 Greek Folk-Songs. 



Kahr^ hag yianreapbij 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 424.) 

At Salonf ca's gate of yore, 

There sat a Janissary; 

A Janissary boy was he, 

And in his hand a lute he bore. — 

A lute of gold. He strikes its strings. 
' Play little lute/ to it he sings : 
* And tell me, for thou know'st, I wis, 
What is the value of a kiss ?* 

'A matron's, sequins twelve will cost ; 
For widow's, just fourteen you'd pay ; 
To kiss a sweet unmarried maid, 
Venetian sequins five are lost' 



X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 415.) 

A TREE within my courtyard grew. 
To me 'twas pleasure ever new ; 
I gave fresh water to its root, 
That it might thrive and bear me fruit 

TJie Tree. 187 

Its leaves were all of gold so bright, 
Its branches all of silver white ; 
Fair pink and white the flowers it shed, 
Its fruit was like the apple red ; 
And I believed it was for me 
That they had made it fair to sec. 

When the apples from the tree 
Gathered were, the housewife (she 
Was a b— — ) would give me none ; 
Into stranger's hands they're gone. 

H oiNonnAis. 

Ilf^a 'j n)v 'Ava.roM 
xai 'c r^i' AiT^/aw^flroX/, 

X. r. X. 

{A ravandinos, 42 1 .) 
In Anat61ia, so they tell, 
In Adrianople town as well. 
Sweet wine, red wine, there they sell. 
There the Turks come every day ; 
Drink, and then their reck'ning pay. 
One old Konidr^ who's drunk his wine. 
To pay his score refuses. 

* O give me, Turk, my aspra? now, 
And I'll to thee a lady bring. 
Who has sequins by the string.' 

* Thou no lady need'st me bring, 
Who has sequins by the string ; 
But a Vldcha, mountain-bred, 
One who wears an apron red.' 

^ An Asiatic Turk, settled in Europe, and so called from the 
ancient Turkish capital, Konieh (Quonya), Iconium^ in Asia Minor. 
* See Trans, ^ p. 109, note i. 

1 88 Greek Folk-Songs. 



xa< ra/iTTovpa XaXouffavf. 

X, r. X. 

{Aravaudinos, 390.) 

Along are passing gallants gay, 
And on their lutes they sweetly play. 

* O play, my little lute, an air ! 

Who knows ? we may entice some fair. 
As through the quarter down below. 
Or lordlier inalialld^ we go !* 
A high-born maid awakes from sleep, 
And from her mattress off doth leap ; 
Her casement gains with hurrying feet. 
And glances down into the street. 

* O lordly little window high. 

What song wouldst hear as I pass by ? 

It is a sin, if e'er was one, 

So fair a maid should sleep alone !' 



Meff* rj)v ay/a Ilaf^atfXfu^, 
xo^jj Tiotfiuvrav Xyyff>jj, 

X, r. X. 
{Aravandinos, 405.) 

Down in St. Paraskevf 
Sleeps a maid, and fair is she. 

i ChelehiSy a commonly used Turkish word for * Gentlemen.' 
2 * Quarter.* 

The Dream. 189 

Sleeps she soft, and dreams a dream — 
Sees her wedding, it would seem. 
This has turned the maiden's head ; 
She decks her when she leaves her bed, 
Bathes herself, and combs her hair, 
Gazes in the mirror fair ; 
Throws her eyes about and plays. 
Casts them down, and to them says : 
* Little eyes, I'll bless you so, 
To the dance as now we go. 
If you there yourselves will use. 
Husband for me well to choose. 
Age and gold I don't desire ; 
Youth and beauty I require. 
An old man's hard to satisfy ; 
One may not laugh when he is by ; 
Soft on his mattress must he lie ; 
His pillows one must pile up high; 
And all the night he's snoring lying. 
While by his side the maid is sighing.' 



'A^g^s, /Lav^o/ifidra fiov, \du ^iXu yob /dithoii, 

— 'E6w xi' a¥ fiiivfig^ ^m fiov^ Z^u 6d ^ivv^ricft;, 

X. r, X. 
[Aravandiftos, 389.) 

* To-night, to-night, my black-eyed one, 'tis here that 

I'd be biding.' 

* And if thou bidest here, my guest, thou'lt pass the night 

outside there.* 

' Outside it rains, I shall be drenched ; it snows, I shall 

be frozen.' 

1 Compare Burns, * O Lassie, art thou sleeping yet ? and her 

I90 Greek Folk-Songs. 

* Within, my guest, there is no room ; my house it is too 

' A knife I'll take, and slay myself; thou'lt of the crime be 
guilty !' 

* If thou shouldst wound and slay thyself, 'tis little I'd be 




AtfiO¥idg t^firu, Xs/Aoti ha, 

X. r. >^ 

(Aravandinos^ 418.) 

Of the Lemon-tree ask I one lemon alone. 

She answers — * They've counted them every one !' 

Of the Lemon-tree ask I for lemons but two. 
She answers — * Not one even is there for you !' 

Of the Lemon-tree ask I, I ask lemons three. 
She answers me — ^ Potist^!^ I owe none to thee.' 

Of the Lemon-tree ask I, four lemons I claim. 

She answers — ^ Who art thou ? I know not thy name.' 

Of the Lemon-tree ask I, five lemons so bright. 
She says — * Hold the candle and show me a light !* 

Of the Lemon-tree ask I, six lemons I pray ! 
She says—* Hold it still till it's all burnt away.'^ 

1 See above^ p. 140, n. i. 
^ Compare such Children's Rhymes as 

* Oranges and lemons say the bells of St. Clements,' etc, etc. ; 
which suddenly ends with 

* Here comes a candle to light you to bed, 
Here comes a chopper to chop off the last one's head.' 

The Hegoumenos and the Vlach Maiden. 191 




xa/ \ n)v xarou /iiroy/cby 

X; r. X. 

{Aravandinos^ 383.) 

To the upper quarter go, 

Or the neighbourhood below ; 

Vlach girls sit, and wash them there — 
Sit and wash, and comb their hair. 

This a ^gafimenos^ was told. 
Breathless ran he to behold. 

' Vlachopoiila, thee I love ; 
This I've come to tell my dove.' 

' Goiitnenh, if thou lov'st true ; 
Go and fetch a boat, now do ; 

' Handsome let its boatmen be. 
To pull the oars for thee and me.* 


Actfdfxa ;^o»ou; ixafia 

X. r. X. 

(A ravandinos, 425.) 

Long years a doz'n I toiled and moiled. 
Within Stambouli's workshops ; 

^ *Eyovfiivoc, Hegumenos, or Abbot 

192 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Sequins a thousand there I earned, 
Piastres earned five hundred ; 

All of them in one night I spent, 
With one Bulgarian damsel. 

Give me, O Bui gar, back my coin. 
And give me back my sequins !^ 



' KyfiM^a^ ILviKfi fiStaruXt xai koxtuvo yaVrdvij 
— xai xlxxiyo ya'irdytj 

X. r. X. 

{Aravaitdinos, 384.) 

A YOUNGSTER me an apple sent, he sent a braid of 
scarlet — 

He sent a braid of scarlet. 
The apple I did eat anon, and kept the braid of scarlet — 

And kept the braid of scarlet. 
I wove it in my tresses fair, and in my hair so golden — 

And in my hair so golden. 
And to the sea-beach I went down, and to the shore of 
ocean — 

And to the shore of ocean ; 
And there the women dancing were, and drew me in 
among them — 

And drew me in among them. 

^ This Song recalls the story of that famous satire of Sappho's, 
in which she ridiculed her brother Charaxas for having lost all his 

Erofit on a cargo of wine with the beautiful Thracian hetaira, 
^oricha, usually called * Rosycheeks * ('Po^wiroc), once the fellow- 
slave of ' iCsop, the fable-writer,' and brought to Navkratis, at the 
eastern mouth of the Nile, by the Samian merchant, Zanthes. — 
See AXHENiEUS, Deipn.^ xiii. 596. 

The Wooei^s Gift. 193 

The youngster's mother there I found, and there, too, 
was his sister — 

There was his eldest sister. 
And as I leapt and danced amain, and as I skipped and 
strutted — 

And as I skipped and strutted — 

My cap fell off, and ev'ryone could see my braid of 
scarlet — 

Could see my braid of scarlet. 

* I say, the braid you're wearing there was to my son 

belonging — 

My dearest son belonging/ 

* And if the braid that now I wear was to your son 

belonging — 

Your dearest son belonging — 
He sent an apple, it I ate, my hair the braid I wound 
through ; 

And I will soon be crowned, too.^ 


H T20MnANI2A. 

oi)rf Th.ytcLyoZprt ^tdvs, 

X. r, X. 

{Aravandinos, 354.) 

A SHEPHERD once a wife had he, 
To curdle milk she'd ne'er agree ; 
His cheese to him she'd never bear. 
To leave him was her only care ; 

J That is, married. For, in the Greek marriage-service, the 
priest places garlands on the heads of the bride and bridegroom, 
saying : ISri^tTt. o iovKoq rov 6eov n|v ioitXtiv rov Ocov. ' Servant of 
God, So-ana-so» crown the servant of God, So-and-so.' 

^ Choban^ a commonly used Turkish word for ' Shepherd.' 

194 Greek Folk-Songs. 

And to the town she fain would go, 
And she would be a lady O ! 
' O leave me not, my partridge dear ; 
Still with me bide — live with me here. 
I'll sell the pig that's in the sty, 
A fur-lined cloak for thee to buy ; 
I'll sell the goats, and have a ring, 
Made with the money that they bring ; 
And all the kids for thee I'll sell. 
To buy thee earrings fine, as well ; 
I'll sell the sheepfold for thy sake. 
So I a dress can for thee make ; 
I'll sell the farm, and land I'll lack. 
So thou mayst have a mantle black.'^ 



B^9jxav xXipratg (rob jSouvcb, 

F/cb vdi xXi^ovv aXo/a* 

X. r, X. 

(PassoWi 507.) 
To the hills the klephtes came. 
Stealing horses was their game ; 
But no horses did they find, 
So my little lambs they took. 
Flocks of kids from 'neath my crook. 
All gone, all gone, all gone, all ! 
Alack, alack, alackaday ! 
Little lambs of mine. 
Little goats of mine, 
Ohone P 

^ The ordinary outer garment of shepherd's wives is of unbleached 
and undyed wool. 

^ Bai / an exclamation either of mere surprise, or of distress and 

The Klephts. 195 

They took from me my milk-pail new, 
In which my flocks' sweet milk I drew ; 
They took from me my reed-pipe true — 
From out my hand they took it, too. 
AH gone, all gone, all gone, all ! 
Alack, alack, alackaday ! 
Little pipe of mine. 
Little pail of mine, 
Ohone ! 

My wether's gone, too, from the fold j 
He had a fleece as bright as gold. 
And horns of silver on his head. 
All gone, all gone, all gone, all ! 
Alack, alack, alackaday. 
Little flocks of mine. 
Little wether mine, 
Ohone ! 

Panaghia, I pray of thee, 
Punish all these klephts for me ! 
Ay, and on them sudden fall ; 
Take away their weapons all. 
In their strongholds punish them, 
Yea, and all the like of them. 
Alack, alack, alackaday 1 
Little flocks of mine, 
Little wether mine, 
Ohone ! 

Panaghfa, if heard by thee. 
And thou smite the klephts for me; 
And again within the fold 
I my ram, with fleece of gold, 

196 Greek Folk-Songs. 

See ; when comes Good Friday round, 
Lambs I'll roast thee, I'll be bound, 
Till from spit they fall to ground. 
Alack, alack, alackaday ! 
Little flocks of mine. 
Little wether mine, 
Ohone ! 


o Ano AH2TOT TEnpros. 

tC fxiaa* aXsrpt acri tfux/cb xa) rh ^uyi acrh ddf¥fi, 

X» T» A« 

{AravandinoSy 352.) 
The robber's trade had Yanni left, and now would be a 

farmer ; 
His plough he made of figtree-wood, the yoke he made 

of laurel ; 
He made of bullrushes his team, an old spade was his 

ploughshare ; 
As for his goad, it was a stick, cut from a branch of 

He sowed, and when the autumn came, he reaped his 

com nine measures. 
The five he owed, and paid them back, three by the 

Turks were taken. 
The one, poor one, that's left to him, he to the mill will 

He finds the clapper on the mill, and cut off* is the water; 
And while he makes the water run, and sets the mill 

The rats come out on every side, and gnaw his sack to 


The Thief turned Husbandman. 197 

' I say, boo, boo, my little sack I Ah me ! I am unlucky !' 
And while he's twisting him his thread^ to mend his 

torn sack's tatters, 
A wolf comes out from t' other side, and kills and eats 

his donkey. 

* I say, boo, boo, my donkey dear ! Ah me ! I am un- 

lucky !' 
Away he goes and climbs a hill, and sits him in the 

sunshine ; 
And takes him off his breeches wide, to rid them of the 

From high above an eagle swoops, and carries off his 


* I say, boo, boo, O breeches mine ! Ah me I I am un- 

lucky !' 
He sets out down the hill again, and soon his children 

spy him. 
' O mana^ here Effendi^ comes, and from the mill he's 

Without the sack, without the ass, and oh ! without his 

breeches !' 
Yann6va to the door came out — she for the flour was 

waiting — 
And called to him : * Come, hurry now ! the cakes I must 

be kneading ; 
For hungry all the children are, and for their food 

they're screaming.' 

* Now hold thy tongue, thou featherbrain P I'm deafened 

with thy chatter ; 
For unbreeched home thou seest I've come, and come 
without the donkey !' 

^ Unspun yam, which is dexteroasly twisted with the hands as 
required for use. 
* See adove^ p. 160, n. i. 
' ZaXmpuea, from Z<i\i|, giddiness. 


.■ » 






(Passffw, 193,) 
Waixachia's^ nightingales lament, the birds within the 
forests ; 

' The raost natural division of tbese Historical Folk-songs seems to 
be into three Periods — the First extending from theOttoman Conquest 
to the first Greek Insurrections in the last <]uarier of the Eighteenth 
Century — those, namely, of the Cypriotes in 1760, of the Mainotes 
in 1770, and of the Souliotes in 1787 ; the Second Period extending 
from about 1760 to the Greek War of Independence in 1821 ; and 
the Third, from the latter date to the present time. The First 
Period and Section of the Songs may be distinguished as the 
Pashalic ; the Second, in at least Northern Greece, as the Souliote ; 
and the Third as the Hellenic. For it was only in this last Period 
that the idea of Hellas was developed, and that Greeks fought as 
Hellenes, and not merely as Mainotes or Souliotes, etc., or, at best, 
as Christians against Muslims. 

' Wallachia here means Thrace, not the Trans-Danubian country 
no<v known b^ that name. Thessaly was for long a semi-inde- 
pendent principality under the name of Great Wallachia, KiyaKti 
ShKxia. See Introd,, p. 28 ; also p. 29, n. 36. 


200 Greek Folk-Songs. 

They weep at morn, they weep at eve, and weep they too 

at noontide. 
They're weeping for the pillaged town, sore pillaged 

That at the year's three festivals the Turks despoil and 

At Christmastide they tapers take, the palms on Passion 

And on the morn of Easter Day, break up our * Christ is 

Risen !'i 




X. r. >w 

{Pass aw, 194.) 

The city's taken, it is lost, they've taken Salonfca ! 
Ayid Sofid they've taken too, the Minster great they've 

Which has three hundred wooden bells^ and sixty-four of 

metal ; 
And every bell has its own priest, and every priest his 

With them come out the holy Saints, the Universal 

A message comes to them from heaven by mouths of 

holy Angels — 

^ The reference is to the Resurrection Song, of which a transla- 
tion is given above^ p. 104. 

» Perhaps * wooden gongs ' would be a better translation of the 
Greek ofiftavrpa, which are simply suspended boards struck with 
a wooden clapper hung beside tnem. 

The Capture of Constantinople, 201 

' Cease ye that psalmody, and lower the Saints down 

from their niches, 
And send word to the Prankish lands that they may 

come and take them. 
That they may take the golden Cross and take the Holy 

The Holy Table let them take, that it may not be sullied.' 
The Virgin heard the words and wept, all tearful were 

the Icons ; 
* O hush thee, Virgin I Icons, hush ! mourn not, and 

cease your weeping ; 
Again, with years, the time shall come when ye again 

shall dwell here/ 



'Avd&tfid (ft, fia6tKvidy xai r^ig dm^ifiu 6%^ 

fii rh xax&y ocr^xa/tc;, /Lt rh xaxh VoD xdvug ! 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, i.) 

O CRUEL King, accurs'd be thou, and be thou thrice ac- 

For all the evil thou hast done, the ill thou still art doing I 

Thou send'st and draggest forth the old, the primates 
and the parsons, 

The tax of Children to collect, to make them Janissaries. 

The mothers weep their darling sons, and sisters, brothers 
cherished ; 

And I am weeping, and I burn, and all my life I'll sorrow ; 

Last year my little son they took, this year they took my 

brother ! 

1 The Child-Tax was enforced till 1675, the last year of the 
Vizierate of Achmet Kiuprili. 

202 Greek Folk- Songs. 


Mup^ Apo'royJrKtffOLf] 
avrov 7oD 'rag rjv iKxKni^tdj 

«• r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 420.) 

DropoUtissa, I say, 
As to church you go to-day, 
Apron all in front so gay, 
And with cap worn all sideway, 
Now at church you're going to pray, 
A little prayer for us you'll say, 
That the Turks take us not away 
To be enrolled as Jan'serai, 
Nor take us to the Kislar Bey^ — 
Like the lambs on Easter-Day ! 


<Psyyapdxi /ji^u Xa/i'srph 

^iyyt /lov vob 'Tsp'X'aTUj 

X. r. X. 

(Passow, 278.) 

Little moon of mine so bright, 
As I walk now shed thy light 
On my way to school to-night ; 
To learn my letters now I go. 
To learn to broider and to sew, 
And the things of God to know.* 

1 Literally * Bey of the Women,' the Chief Eunuch of the Sultan, 
who was Governor of Greece. 

* Tov etov rd TTpdyfiarcL That IS to say, the old Aryan myths of 
a Trinity, a God-man, and a Resurrection, instead of the unmytho- 
logic Semitic monotheism adopted by the Turks. 

Tlie Sea-Fight and tJie Captive. 203 





X. r. X. 

{Aravafsdifios, 2.) 

Would that I were a nightingale, or would I were a 

Or golden lantern I would be that's in Messina's beacon, 
That I might see, that I might spy when Rfga spreads his 

canvas ! 
They joyful sail, and as they row, all gaily sing the 

sailors ; 
They seek no port to enter in, no harbour where to anchor; 
Their quest is for Ali Pashd, they long to give him battle. 
When in mid-sea meet those two fleets, those battle-ships 

so many, 
Then roar the guns above the deep, and day is quenched 

in darkness. 
One prow is with another locked, and mast with mast 

entangled ; 
The blades are flashing in the air, and loudly crack the 

muskets ; 
With feet and hands the ships are filled, filled all with 

bleeding corpses. 
AH Pashd's among the slain, that worthy pallikdri. 
Astern of him comes Riga now, with his great galliot, 

Riga ; 
Within, a hundred prisoners all lie with fetters laden. 
One prisoner groaned so heavily the vessel sailed no 


204 Greek Folk-Songs. 

And Riga feared, and called to him the captain of the 

galliot : 
' He who has groaned so heavily that still has stood the 

vessel ; 
If he be of my followers, I will increase I>is wages ; 
And if he of my captives be, \)e shall receive his freedooL* 
^ I am the man who groaned so sore the vessel sailed no 

longer ; 
For I a horrid dream have dreamt, a dream as here I 

I saw my wife whom they had crowned and married to 

A bridegroom only four days old the Turks took me a 

And ten long years I've passed since then on Barbary's 

soil in durance ; 
Ten walnut trees I planted there within my dreary 

Of all of them I ate the fruit, but Freedom found I never.' 




{AravandtnoSf 3.) 

The Bishop of Phandrio, the aged Serapheime, 

By calumny the Turks overthrew, the K6niars of Phar- 

sdlia ; 
They chained him in the pillory, and cruelly they tor- 

Serapheim of Phandri. 205 

And near to a dark cypress tree his reverend head they 

The roots of the sad cypress tree all faded soon and 

To keep the bishop company they slew with him three 

And on the spot where their four heads had all been 

thrown together, 
A light was seen to shine at night, seen by a simple 

Who ran to bring his master word and tell him of the 

His master bade him go again and steal the head from 

That head from which the bright light shone, and bear it 

down to Dousko. 
The shepherd took it, and he ran unto Salambria's 

But follow swiftly at his heels two Ydnniniots pursuing, 
And in his fright the simple swain has dropped it in the 

Then back unto his master runs to tell of his adventure. 
They two, when midnight dark had come, went down to 

the Salambria ; 
They search, and soon its radiance bright the head to 

them discovered. 
And running joyfully they came, as morning broke, to 

And hurried there both young and old, the men of the 

White River;! 
With holy rite they buried it within the sanctuary. 
The folk of Agrapha were told ; they wrote and prayed 

the Patriarch 

^ Affwpowor&fioQ, 

2o6 Greek Folk-Songs. 

To send an order that the skull the Dodskiots should 

give them. 
They took it and they placed it high upon the hill 

That they might hold a feast to it, and build a roof to 

A picture too they made of him, limned by a skilful 

painter ; 
Above was seen the Ydnniniots the shepherd swain 

pursuing ; 
And at the foot the Plague was crouched, the Plague 

with aspect dreadful,^ 
Whom he was piercing with a sword and under foot was 

treading ; 
And since that time in Agrapha the Death has never 



O A0TA02. 

x/ a^^ rh (fv^voxipa^/ia x/ dl«^ T6i •vj/ijXd rpayovdia^ 

X. r. X. 

(PassoWf 49a, I.) 

My Master bade me pour the wine, and fill for him the 

From often pouring it, and from the high songs that I 
sang him, 

rd weary grown, my trembling hand the cup could 
hold no longer. 

It fell not on the marble floor, nor on the pebbled pave- 

^ The Plague is represented as a hideous old h^. 
^ This song is still sung on his Feast-day in the Church dedicated 
to the martyred Bishop. 


The Slave. 207 

But on my Master's lap it fell, and in my Lady's apron. 
Sore wrathful waxed my Master then, and he would go 

and sell me ; 
And criers he sent round about in all the neighboring 

country : 
* Who wants to buy a handsome slave, to pour wine for 

his drinking ?' 
' O sell me not, EfTendi mine, make not of me a bargain; 
For am I not thy handsome slave, and thy experienced 

servant ?' 
' But I shall sell thee now, my slave, and make of thee a 

' It is not just, EfTendi mine, to such a pallikari ; 
For I am known of all the world, and everybody knows 

' Go, go, my slave, good luck to thee ; but come thou 

never nigh me 1' 


X. r. X, 

(Aravandinos, 31.) 

Brave Metsorsos on the hills, high on the mountain- 

Has gathered round him gallant klephts, and they are 
all Albanians 

* This robber-chief, whose real name was Mustaphi, was the 
great-grandfather of Alf Pashd, and the son of Hussein Kapoudji, 
who is said (though probably really an Albanian) to have come 
from Constantinople about the middle of the Sixteenth Century, 
and settled at Tepel^ni. 

2o8 Greek Folk-Songs. 

He gathered them, he counted them, he counted them 

three thousand. 
* Now eat and drink, my brave boys all ! rejoice, and let's 

be merry ; 
This lucky year that's with us now, who knows what next 

will bring us, 
If we shall live, or if we'll die, to f other world be 

going ?i 
Now list to me, my pallikars — now list to me, my 

boys all: 
Tis not for eating I want klephts, I want no klephts for 

mutton ; 
I want the klephts for their good swords, I want them 

for their muskets. 
For three days' marching must we do, and do it in one 

night too ; 
That we may go, and set our feet within Nik61o's 

houses ; 
Which have of coin a right good store, and which have 

plates of silver/ 

* Nik61o, may thy day be good !' * Thou'rt welcome, 


* The boys want lodging here with thee, the pallikars 

want dinner; 
And I myself want five fat lambs, I want two good fat 

wethers ; 
A damsel fair besides I'd have, to pour the wine out for 

No, no ! I want no damsel fair, nor mutton killed and 

roasted ; 
Piastres* in my lap I want, and sequins' in my pocket* 

' 'c S>Xov K6eiio ira/AC. * Vpovia, • ^Xwpc^. 

>ir*<iJ»*^ '* ■« **> »ii . ' % ' ■ n ;^ i-oipi^if^p 

Christos Milionis. 209 



To¥a rfi^dsi rhv 'Apfivphy r&XXo xarcb rhv BdXro. 

X, r. X. 

(Passow, I.) 

Three little birds perched on the ridge hard by the 

Klephtes* stronghold, 
One looked towards fair Armyr6, the other down to 

Vdlto ; 
The third, the best of all the three, a dirge was singing 

sadly : 
'Lord Jesus! what can have become of Christos 

Mili6nis ? 
No more in Valto is he seen, nor yet in Kr^avrisi.^ 
They say he has gone far away and entered into Arta, 
And taken captive the Kadf, and made the Agas pris'ners. 
The Mussulmans have heard of it and sorely are they 

troubled ; 
They've called the Mavromdta out, and called Mouktar 

" If you your bread would have of us, and if you would 

be leaders. 
First must you Christos execute^ kill Captain Mili6nis : 
So has our Sultan ordered it, and he has sent a firman." 
When Friday dawned, and when the day had broke and 

mom was shining, 
Then Soulieman set forth in quest, for he would go to 

find him. 
At Armyr6 they met as friends, as friends they kissed 

each other ; 

* Inirod,^ p. 28. 

2 1 o Greek Folk-Songs. 

And all the livelong night they drank, until the day was 

And as the dawn began to shine, they passed to the 

lem^ria ;^ 
And Soulieman loud shouted there to Capitdn Mili6nis : 
" You're wanted, Christos, by the King, and wanted by 

" While life and breath in Christos are, to no Turk will 

he yield him ! " 
With gun in hand they run to meet, as one would eat 

another ; 
Fire answers fire, they fall, and, dead, both lie upon the 


5 YROS. 


Kovax/a *^ovv rii¥ Ttracrou^v/a, xovaxia *ir& KavoX/a, 

X. r. X. 

{PassoWy 30^.) 

From Servia* has Syros come, and Nanno out from 

V^rria ; ^ 
They houses have in Tsapoumid, and houses in Kandlia,* 
A lodging-place at Kerosid, within the Parson's dwelling. 
' Now bring forth. Parson, bread and wine, and fodder for 

the horses ; 

^ The hiding-places of the klephts, supposed to be derived from 
oXfi 'fupci, * all day.' 

^ The stronghold defending the pass of the Saranddporos, and 
originally occupied by the Servians settled in the valley of the 
Haliacmon, by the Emperor Heraclius, about 620. 

' The Birrhcea of St. Paul See Introd,^ p.37. 

* Identified by M. Heuzey with the Olympian Sanctuary of the 
Muses. See Introd.^ p. 35- 

Syros. 211 

Bring, Parson, too, thy daughter out, our Capitan demands 

* I'll give you bread, I'll give you wine, and fodder for 

your horses ; 
But I have not my daughter here, she's gone out to the 

The words had hardly left his mouth, the words he'd 

hardly uttered, 
When lo ! his daughter dear is seen, with apples heavy 

She apples bears, her apron full, and quinces in her 

He bends, from her the apron takes, and then her hand 

he kisses. 
' Come, maiden mine, upon my knee, and wine now pour 

out for me ; 
I'll drink until the morning break, and birds go seek 

their breakfast.' 
'I am a Parson's daughter, sir — I am a Parson's 

daughter ; 
And for no Captain of them all have I e'er filled a wine- 
For it would be a shame to me, a shame to all my 

lineage ; 
A shame 'twould to my father be, who is a man of rank, 

•Then will I take thee with my hand, and with my 

sword I'll take thee ; 
Of no Pashd am I afraid, me no Vizier can frighten ; 
For I am Syros the renowned, the celebrated Syros. 
By night and day I am at war, at early morn in am- 
bush ; 
And famous captains, too, are mine, and chosen men my 

soldiers — 

212 Greek Folk-Softgs. 

And mine is Ts^ghi the renowned; and mine brave 

Captain Tdsos ; 
For when they see my hand and seal, and when they see 

my writing, 
They turn the night to day to come, to come apace and 

join me.' 

(1760- 1 7 80.) 


SaCCaro fjfii^a^ xv^iaxri <r^oroD ¥& ^fifAt^ut^j 
Kcyftfav "Sari^fi^n^^ 'g rhp WXffM yet vdvti, 

X, r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 45.) 

It happened on a Saturday before the dawn of Sunday, 
That Satir Bey from his konak fared forth to battle going. 
But as he travelled on the road, and on the road was riding, 
A little Bird did cross his path, and sadly him accosted : 
' Turn back, my Bey, I pray of thee, turn back, for Death 

will meet thee !' 
' Where didst thou learn, thou little Bird, that Death 

would come to meet me ?' 
* Up in the sky, but yesterday, among the holy Angels ;^ 
They wrote thy dwelling desolate, they wrote thy wife a 

They wrote thy young beys fatherless, they wrote them 

poor and beggars/ 
The words had hardly left his mouth, the words he'd 

hardly uttered, 
A rattle's heard, and Satir Bey lay dead upon the 


^ Compare with 'The Moirai, or Fates,' adove, p. iii. 

The Capture of Larissa and Tirnavo. 213 


'An'j^|'' liioi aril 'une finv, tfrji vtno nZ xai/iu/iavr, 
1i itdr' ixcEi) TcuftaCof, «it /tdr' initi ^ Aofoo. 

X. r. X. 
{Passoui, 199.) 

Last night a dream there came to me, a vision as I 

In flames did Tfrnova appear, and burning, too, was 

Lir'ssa ; 
They took the mothers with their babes, and wives took 

with their husbands ; 
They took with them a youthful wife — but three days 

born her baby. 
A thousand went in front of them, behind them marched 

five hundred. 
' O wait awhile, my pallikars I O wait awhile, leventes ! 
My babe in swaddling bands I'd bind, milk from my 

breast I'd give him.' 
The pallikars awaited her, and waited the leventes : 
' O Peter, thee I leave my child, O guard him well, and 

tend him ; 
For ere I go, and come again, and back can be 

The raven shall have feathers white, and shall become a 

pigeon !' 

214 Greek Folk-Songs. 



ag Tayfi (li^ rot, F/avyiva, avrlx^ &vh rh xdtrr^o. 

X, r. X. 

{AravandinoSy .6.) 

Whoever mournful cries would hear, and doleful 

O let him go to Ydnnina, before the lofty castle, 
And to the great Pashfna list, to Soulieman Pashfna, 
Who cries and loud laments her lord, and bitter tears 

is shedding. 
* Ye women all of Ydnnina, and ladies of the castle, 
Now put off all your garments red, and in the black 

array you. 
For they have slain my Soulieman — have slain the gfreat 

The Vizier of all Yannina, and VoYvode, too, of Arta T^ 



NOrT202 K0NT0AHM02. 

fiia. cTf^d/xa xard/JMv^ri girix^oxiXa'ibovffi, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravandinos, 7.) 

Upon the breast of Bikou high that is within Vrad^to, 
There had a black-plumed partridge perched, and sang 
full sorrowfully. 

^ This Soulieman was the predecessor of the famous All, the 
*■ Lion of lodnnina '; and his widow built to his memory a sculptured 
Fountain, and a large Khan, called the Khan of Kyria, or the Lady, 
on the other side of Mount Metzikeli from loinnina, and on the road 
across Pindus to Mezzovo— a Khan where I spent a memorably 
stormy night 

Noutso Kontodemos. 215 

She sang not as a bird should sing, but a sad dirge was 

wailing : 
* What is this evil that has falFn upon deceived Zag6ri ? 
The primate they have massacred, good Noutso Konto- 
Who was the greatest 'mong the great in all the Vilay^ti. 
O Noutso ! said I not to thee — My brother, with me 

Thou wouldst not hear me, wouldst set out, to Yannina 

wouldst hasten, 
That Turkish woman to salute, that Souliemdn Pashfna. 
And she, to thank thee, thy poor head did sever from 

thy body. 
And on the dunghill cast it forth, and let the dogs 

devour it. 
On thee be curses, PAshina, and thrice be he accursed, 
Thy husband, Alis6t Pashd,^ whom to thy side thou'st 


^ Her second husband. 

14 — 2 

2 1 6 Greek Folk-Songs. 




Tg/a o'ouXax/a xd^ovvrav ifrhv 'A/' EX/a <fri ^dyvi^ 
Tova rri^an rob F/av/va, r' aXXo ri KaxotfoDX/. 

X. r. X. 

(Passow, 203.) 

Three birds were on a summit perched — tlie ridge of 

St. Elias ; 
To Yannina did one look down, and one to Kakosoiili ; 
The third, the best of all the three, a sad dirge sang and 

chanted : — 
' Albania has gathered her, and gone to Kakosouli, 
Three companies are on the road, all three drawn up in 

One's headed by Moukhtar Pasha, and one by Mitsov6nos, 
The third, the best of all the three, the Selikhtdr is 

And from the mountain opposite, a parson's wife was 

gazing ; 
'Where are ye, sons of M^tzovo,and KakosouH's children ? 
The Albanians have come down on us, they want to 

make us captives. 
To Tepeldni we'll be dragged, and there they'll make us 

And Koutonsfka answered her, from Avarflco answered : 

Koutsonika. 2 1 7 

* Fear not, Pdpadia, have no fear, and far from you be 

For now you shall the battle see of Klephtes' long 

tophdikia — 
See how the valiant Klephts can fight, and they of 

Kakosoiili !' 
But scarce had Koutsonfka said, his say he'd hardly ended, 
When, see ! the Turks are flying fast, on foot and horse- 
back flying. 
One fled, and, flying, another said : * Pashd, be thou 

accursed ! 
Much evil hast thou wrought for us, hast brought to us 

this summer ; 
Thou'st wasted many Turkish swords, and many of 

And B6tsaris cried out and said, while his good sword he 

brandished : 

* Come now, Pashd, why art thou grieved, that thus post- 

haste thou fleest ? 
Turn here again unto our land, to desolate Kidpha ; 
There thou mayest raise thy throne again, and there 

thou may'st be Sultan.' 



^Eputva^t /ita ^a^otdta fug a^ rh ^ K^a^tM* 

^' Iloutrrs roD Aa.a^^ou rob vtubiot, ; ^oOtfrt oT MTOT^a^uTbi. 

X. r. X. 

(PassoWf 207.) 

There called aloud a parson's wife in Avarfko's village : 

* Where are ye. Ldmbro's boys, and ye, the followers of 

Botsdris ? 

^ This song commemorates the great Souliot victory of the 20th 
July, 1792, over the forces of Alf Pashd of loinnina, who is said to 
have killed two horses in flying from the field of battle. 

2i8 Greek Folk-Songs. 

A cloud has fairn upon us now ; on foot and horseback 

soldiers ; 
They are not one, nor are they two, but nineteen thousand 

are they.' 

* Let come the Turks, those worn-out Turks, for they 

can never harm us ! 
Let come the battle, let them see the long guns of the 

Soiiliots ! 
And let them know our Ldmbro's sword, and B6tsaris' 

tophaiki — 
The weapons of the Souliot maid, the celebrated Haidee!* 
The fight began, and loud around the guns their rattle 

To Zervas and to B6tsaris cried loudly brave Tzav^las : 

* Out with your swords, my gallant boys, and let your 

guns be silent !* 

* 'Tis not yet time,' said B6tsaris, * 'tis not yet time for 

Keep ye within the fortress still, nor from the walls yet 

sally ; 
For without number are the Turks, and few, alas ! the 

Soiiliots P 
*What is it, fellows, that ye fear?* Tzav^las boastful 


* Our craven heads still must we hide before those dogs 

th' Albanians ?' 
Each man his scabbard takes in hand, in pieces twain 

he snaps it ; 
They fiercely fall upon the Turks, like rams they fall 

upon them. 
Calls to his men Velf Pashd — * Turn not your backs like 

cowards !' 
And thus they answer him again, while they their guns 

are firing : 

Lambros Tzavelas. 219 

* This place it is no D^Ivino, nor is it yet Widini ; 

But it is Soiili the Renowned, whose praise the world 

has sounded ! 
It is the sword of Ldmbros brave, with Turkish blood 'tis 

stained — 
The sword that's caused Albania's folk in mourning to 

array them. 
The mothers mourn their fallen sons, and wives their 

slaughtered husbands.' 



** llaoTct. xaufiivri n^ijSi^a r 'AX? fl'atfS r^dtfxs^/o." 

X. r, X. 

{Passow, 201.) 

'Yield not, sore leaguered Preveza, to Ali Pasha's 
soldiers !' 

* How sayest — ^yield not, dost thou not see I cannot 

hold out longer ? 
Ali Pasha is pelting me with soldiers twice five thousand ; 
His cannon pierce me like the rain, his shot are like the 

hailstones ; 
And those small arms shower down on us like still rain 

in the springtime !** 
The captives go to Yannina, as slaves to Tepeleni ; 
They've taken dame Yorgdkaina, and all her sons' wives 

with her. 

^ * Remember the moment when Preveza fell, 

The shrieks of the conquered, the conquerors' yell,' etc. 

Byron, CAi/dt Harold^ c. ii. 
' Compare //. xii. 278 : ' But as flakes of snow fall thick on a 
winter's day when Zevs the Counsellor hath begun to snow, showing 
forth these arrows of his to men.' 

220 Greek Folk-Songs. 

The youngest daughter lags behind, she walks not with 
the others. 

* Walk faster, my brave daughter dear, behind us do not 

loiter ; 
It is, perhaps, thy many coins, thy many pearls oppress 

* My strings of coins oppress me not, nor do my pearls 

oppress me ; 
It is my child oppresses me, I've left him in the cradle. 
O cradle ! rock my little babe, O rock and feed him for me, 
Till I can go and come again, and back can be returning. 
To where they slew my husband dear ; upon my knees 

they slew him, 
Cut off his hands, which bleeding fell — they fell upon 

my apron !* 



UiVTS vofidroi ffSt/j,tf¥av x* sxsTvoi Xa^ufisvot. 

X, r, X. 
Valaorites^ MvrifAoffuvcc 

* Kal6yer, what art thou waiting for, imprison'd within 

Kounghi ? 
Five men alone are left to thee, and all the five are 

And thousands are the enemies that are encamped 

around thee. 
Come out, give up the keys to us, and give in thy sub- 
mission ; 
Our general, Velf Pashd, will make of thee a bishop !' 
Within the church's lofty walls is Samuel beleaguered. 
And on the wind are borne to him the words of traitor 

The Monk Samuel. 221 

No psalms are sung, no incense burnt, no holy tapers 

lighted ; 
But mournful 'fore the sacred gates,, five Souliots are 

They speak not, motionless they kneel ; yet see, anon 

and ever 
A hand is raised, that reverent makes the sign of their 

And still, upon the marble floor, their blood-stained 

swords are lying. 
Swords that so well have fought and striven for their 

beloved Souli ! 
Not with them there is Samuel seen ; alone before the 

The mystic offering he prepares, and there, alone, he 

And firmly in his aged hands he holds the sacred vessel, 
While many, many secret words he murmurs to his 

His undimmed eyes, though heavy grown, red-rimmed 

with many vigils. 
Intently contemplate the feast, the Sacred Blood and 

An ocean they, of which the waves, with secret hopes 

are surging ! 
Hushed be ye now, ye thundering guns ! and cease, ye 

cries of battle ! 
For Samuel will celebrate on earth his last Communion. 

And as upon the Flesh Divine the priest in rapture gazes. 
Falls from his eye the cup within, one tear, like dew 

' My God and Father, buried here within Thy house, I 

thirsted ; 

222 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Unmixed with water, incomplete would be Thy Holy 

Supper ;^ 
Accept, Creator, this sad tear, and do not Thou despise it. 
From my heart's leaves, all clean and pure. Thou seest 

that forth it floweth ; 
Accept it, my Creator, now ; I have no other water.* 
A ray of sunlight streaming in, illumed the sacred vessel. 
And warmed the Blood, until, at last, it rose in wreaths of 

And when the grace divine he saw, then Samuel exulted. 
The sacred cup he trembling held, and to his bosom 

pressed' it : 
And as he kissed, with reverent lips, he heard, like 

heart's pulsation, 
That soft, with newly given life, the Sacred Blood was 

And lowly bend the pallikars, as ope the Holy Portals, 
So low that on the marble floor they strike their valiant 

And thus await, immovable, the words of the Kal6yer. 

Unmoved the priest approaches them, upon his face a 

As bright as snowy mountain-top,illumined by the moon- 

A barrel in his hand he bears, those hands so maimed 
and wounded ; 

Imprisoned in its staves are death, and fire, and 

That one alone is left to him, and that alone suffices. 

Before the Holy Portal, now, he sets it up unaided. 

Three times he consecrates it there, three times he prays 
before it, 

* This is the Orthodox, which differs from the Catholic version. 

The Monk SamtieL 223 

As if the Holy Table 'twere, or as it were the Platter. 

The priest above the Sacred Cup extends his hands in 

And calmly, silently he lights the match to fire the barrel ; 

Then violently his knees resound upon the marble pave- 

His hands he lifts, his countenance with light celestial 
kindles ; 

Then raise their eyes the Soiiliots, and gaze on the 

The Prayer. 

My Father, I have done Thy will. 
Right faithfully, for years two-score ; 
And now my race is nearly run, 
Thou givest to me trouble sore ! 
Thy Will be done, not mine, O Lord ! 
Let us Thy mercy now obtain ; 
Have pity, and Thy wrath restrain. 

An orphan, whom the world forsook, 

I gave my youthful soul to Thee ; 

I Souli to my bosom took, 

My only child on earth to be. 

Alas ! my Souli I have lost. 

And now my latest hour has come. 

Receive me in Thy heavenly home. 

O count, and see how few remain ; 
The others slain and slaughtered fall ; 
In valleys lone, upon the plain, 
They're dead and wounded, scattered all ! 
Untombed and unlamented strewn. 
Their bones are rotting in the shade 
Of rocky pass, or grassy glade. 

224 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Fierce wolves by night and birds by day 
Upon our blackened flesh have fed ; 
Have pity, Father, Thee we pray ; 
Forgive our sins, for Thee we've bled. 
And now that we to Thee draw nigh, 
And to Thy bosom hasten home, 
Oh ! let us as Thy children come ! 

Behold, O Lord, our wounded hands, 
That unto Thee we raise on high, 
From blood of the unfaithful bands 
They've ta'en this stain of crimson dye. 
And sanctify us, Thee we pray. 
And say to each, — Thou hast well done. 
My faithful, blessed, valiant one. 

Now Soiili has expired indeed ! 

And not a single valiant hand 

Is left of all the Soiiliot breed. 

That can with finger grasp his brand. 

Almighty Father, be to us 

A Fatherland. Of life bereft, 

To us no other hope is left ! 

Above, in heaven, around Thy throne, 
Among the many mansions fair. 
Give, Father, to Thy servants lone. 
Such mansions, and such dwellings there. 
That Soiili still we may recall. 
And cliffs and crags, too, let there be, 
That still my Koiinghi I may see. 

Of Soiili free no soil remains 
Enough for her defenders' grave. 
Have pity. Father, heed our pains ; 
O Father, hear us, hear and save. 

The Monk Samuel. 225 

And unto me this favour grant — 
That Kounghi mine, this holy dome 
And altar, may be Samuel's tomb. 

Here infidel, with foot of scorn, 
Shall never, though he triumph, dare — 
Shall never, I have said and sworn — 
To tread my Koiinghi's rocky stair. 
With me to heaven the keys I bear ; 
No man the keys shall take from me. 
Nor will I give them up to Thee. 

There high in heaven before Thy face, 
Still will I wear them at my side ; 
Thy servant Samuel asks this grace, 
That with him still they may abide. 
Grant him this favour, gracious Lord ; 
Be not Thou angry, but forbear, 
For I alone the keys would wear. 

And now that in Thine ears weVe poured 

Our pain and all our grief and woe. 

To Thee we come : accept us. Lord. 

From our sweet Sodli we must go. 

Ah, Souli 1 thou art lost to me ! 

Be still, my soul ! thou must not weep ; 

The time has come when thou may'st sleep. 

Then to his five companions his outstretched hands 
extending — 

O Thou, my God, all-merciful, 
From earth I, a poor fugitive. 
Must to Thy holy shadow flee, 
And in Thy presence come to live. 

226 Greek Folk-Songs. 

One favour grant, Creator mine — 

That these brave five with me may come, 

And share with me that heavenly home. 

Within my arms they've nurtured been, 
None have they loved but Thee and me, 
No other master have they served ; 
They martyrs are for liberty. 
Then take from me my blessing now ; 
And fear ye not, my children dear. 
With me ye'U live — be of good cheer. 

Drop after drop, drop after drop, their bitter tears are 

Where they bedew the marble floor they crack and 

rend the pavement 
Tis sorrow deep that tears their hearts, death has for 

them no terror ; 
And weeping rises Samuel too, and from the Holy Table, 
In one hand takes the Blessed Cup, the Spoon takes with 

the other, 
To celebrate the Sacrament of his beloved Saviour. 
He gives the first, the second too, the third and fourth 

receive it, 
And it suffices for the last, and now to him is offered. 
Then, as the papas sweetly sang, the holy service 


' Of thy mystic supper, 
To-day, O Son of God. . . .' 

Resounded with redoubled cries the blows and war's 

The Infidels surprise thee, Monk ! what is it thou art 

doing ? 

The Monk Samuel. 227 

His eyes he lifts as loud the blows upon the door are 

And from the Spoon within his hand lets fall upon the 

Of Christ's pure Blood one flaming drop, one drop alone 

has fallen. 
'Tis struck as with a lightning-flash, and the whole earth 

is thundVing. 
One moment shines the unsullied church, one moment 

glitters Kounghi. 
Ah! what a consecration dire she's at her death re- 
Black Souli the unfortunate — what smoke, what incense 

burning ! 
The monk's black cassock, floating still, towards the sky 

And spread, and spread upon the wind in wide and fearful 

And rising with the smoke it soared, and with it on was 

And sailing, floating on it went, and still like death was 

poising ; 
And where its flaming shadow fell, upon the hills and 

Like mystic fire it burnt the groves, and scorched the 

wooded hillsides. 
But with the first rain-storms of spring, and with the 

showers of summer. 
Shall spring again the freshest grass, with laurels, olives, 

myrtles ; 
With slaughters, victories, and hopes shall spring fresh 

joys and Freedom ! 

228 Greek Folk-Songs. 



• ••♦•♦ 

'O'OXy^cro; ayacrijtfi t^v Sifiopfri rjiTOtftfo, 

X. r. X. 
VaiaoriiiSy Mvrifi6(fuva asfi^arct, 

Vlach AVA, son of whom art thou, what mother, and what 

father ? 

« « « « « 

Olympus loved the much-desired, the proud and lovely 

For many years he gazed on her, his eyes \vith love's 

fires burning ; 
And she would blush beneath his gaze, and she in fear 

would hide her. 

One night, one night of spring, the joy of gods, serene 

and tranquil ; 
In heaven the stars all glorious shone, from very fulness 

As though they held love's hidden flame, love's burning, 

love's heartbeating. 
No sound was heard but bleating flocks, or sheep-bell's 

muffled tinkle, 
As wandered o'er the fields the sheep, and grazed within 

the meadows. 

^ Nothing was ever known of the parentage of this hero of 
Olympus and Pindus, and hence the following splendid myth. 
After many victories over the troops of Ali Pasha, his band was 
attacked by ten times their number, and he himself was taken 
prisoner, diabolically tortured, and put to death. The heroic monk 
Demetrius, who had been his friend and constant companion, was 
soon afterwards taken prisoner, and built into a cell with his head 
only free, in order thus to prolong his agonies. 

Evthymios Vlachavas. 229 

Anon and ever, on the ear sweet strains of woodland 

From shepherd's pipe lulled lovingly to sleep the trees 

and flowers ; 
And fragrant from the laurels blew the breeze, and from 

the myrtles. 
And from the joyful lily who from out the stream had 

As white as purest maiden's face the Sun has ever 

gazed on. 
The lily curved his slender neck, and darted loving 

To woo his shadow in the wave, within the deep blue 

O sweetly, sweetly. Echo brought upon the ear the 

Of Klepht, who calls to mind the deeds of Christos 

And winds and trees and waters now stand still, all else 

And breathless listen to the praise of him their ancient 

comrade ; 
While softly falls the crystal dew, pure as the tears of 

As if a sudden grief had seized upon the new bride's 

While listening to the dirge he sings for Christos 

Why, hills, surrounded by such wealth of love, and joy, 

and gladness. 
Girt with a life so manifold, with harmonies so varied. 
Why hear I not 'mid rustling leaves, and willow's sway- 
ing branches, 

^ Singing probably the ballad, given above^ p. 209. 


230 Greek Folk-Songs. 

And in the rippling of the streams, the voice of Free- 
dom whisper ? 
Such was the night Olympus chose to tell his love to 

Ossa ; 
To show the love he bore for her, and tell her of his 

See how the lover is adorned ! across his ample 

All white and wide his beard is spread, in soft and 

waving billows, 
That combed are by the moonbeams rays, and tinged 

with mellow radiance ; 
Around him snowy clouds he draws, like foam-flecks 

freshly gathered ; 
The opal mist of sweet May dew he wears, as fustanella. 
And brightly gleams, girt round his waist, and glitters on 

his shoulder — 
The lightning-flash for his good sword, the thunder-bolt 

for musket. 
Joy to the maiden who is loved, loved by the Klepht 

Olympus ! 
The mountains whispered all night long, and one another 

questioned ; 
And when the Morning Star arose, and woke from sleep 

the roses, 
That with the Dawn sprang up the hills, and to the 

highest summits, 
On Ossa, lovely Ossa, still Olympus fond was gazing, 
And saw her blush beneath his glance, blush like a bash- 
ful maiden. 
He stooped, he bent his crest to her, and on her lips he 

kissed her ; 
And quick that kiss, that kiss alone, like life and flame 


Evthymios Vlachavas. 231 

Thrilled through the veins of the new bride, and all her 

being kindled. 
Ere many years had come and gone, ere many months 

and seasons, 
A sound was heard on Agrapha, and in the lofty 

Pindus — 
The footsteps of the Armatole, the terrible Vlachavas ; 
The voice of eagles too that cried, the voice of falcons 

screaming : 
* Ye forests, open wide a path, and gather up your 

branches ; 
And let the Stoichei6 p^s by, the Drdkontas of Ossa !' 

Fallen into the power of Ali Pasha, Vlachavas, after 
being cruelly tortured, is dragged through the streets of 
lodnnina for three days, and dies. He is then decapitated 
by a Gipsy, who places his head on a stone pillar. But 
his faithful dog has followed unnoticed in the crowd. 

The night had fallen, and, satiate, the wild beasts had 

The dog alone remained behind ; upon the earth he 

stretched him, 
And moaned, and moaned incessantly, poor hound, from 

his great sorrow. 
But when the midnight dark had come^ he sudden leapt 

and bounded, 
And in his mouth, and with his jaws, to seize the head 

he struggled ; 
But, maimed and bleeding, his poor claws upon the stone 

slip, broken. 

It is too high, he cannot reach. Yet still he clings, and 



232 Greek Folk-Songs. 

And slips, and falls; but, eagerly, again he leaps un- 
daunted ; 
And with a last, wild, hopeless bound, he stands upon 

the summit 
That head, that head so terrible between his teeth he 

seizes ; 
And with it swift he flees away, across the hills and 

And as their rapid course they take, the forest trees, all 

Ask one another, ' Who is this ?' — ^the pine-tree asks the 

The willow asks the cypress tall, the elm-tree asks the 

laurel — 
*Who is this who is passing by? say, is it not 

Vlachavas ?' 
And with their eyes they follow them, but they are 

fleeing ever. 

When, near the dawning of the day, they reach the 

heights of Ossa, 
Upon her topmost, topmost ridge, among the deepest 

The faithful dog a deep bed digs, and there the head he 

And by its side he stretches him, and lays him down 

O happy be the snowy bed where buried lies Vlachavas ! 
The mother who the hero bore again her bosom 

And spreads a couch that he may rest, like babe within 

the cradle. 

Moukhtar's Farewell to Phrosyne. 233 


2cb pvXko xirpivo xai /Lapa/i/iipo ^ 
Mc 'rfp¥ti 6 avtfiog /li rd frtpdi, 
Maxp' avh ohan^ 'rapadap/Atva^ 

X. r, X. 

( Valaorites, H Ku/xx ^pochvn,) 

Tossed like a yellow leaf, withered and waning, 
Now on the wind's restless wings must I rove ; 
Far, far away from thee, sadly complaining. 
To foreign lands wand'ring, Phrosjrne, my love. 

The wavelets e'en now the lake's margin were kissing, 
Lapped in a slumber so tranquil and deep ; 
Boreas has blown — they are surging and hissing, 
And high 'gainst the white cliffs in thunder they sweep. 

Phrosyne, I'm sent to the land of the stranger. 
Afar 'mid the fire of fierce battle's array ; 
Send from thy loved lips, 'mid strife and 'mid danger, 
Sweet kisses a thousand to cheer on my way. 

For then, if my hour come, while still I'm a rover. 
On soil of the stranger, my heart and my life — 
There, if, to drink my blood, vultures should hover. 
To gorge in the desert with gluttonous strife, 

1 Moukhtar, a son of Alf Pashd, had an intrigue with the beautifol 
and accomplished young wife of a Greek of lodnnina. When 
Moukhtar had been sent to a distant command by his father, she 
and a number of other ladies, accused of infidelity to their hus- 
bands, were drowned in the Lake by command of the tyrant, who 
is said to have made advances to the beautiful Greek, which were 
repulsed. Her tragic &te caused her sins to be forgotten, and 
transformed the addteress into a heroine and martyr. 

234 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Who knows, my belov'd, but those kisses might give me 
The life I had lost, and I'd rise at thy hest, 
And come like a dream to the arms would receive me. 
And lull me, unhappy, Phrosyne, to rest ! 

The winter clouds come, and the snowstorms will follow, 
The flowers are all faded, their fragrance is flown ; 
Away, too, is flying, Phrosyne, the swallow — 
Beware ! for around us night's darkness is thrown ! 

Phros^^ne, I go where the fierce battle rages. 
To lands of the stranger I'm sent far away ; 
Who knows what is written on Fate's hidden pages ? 
Farewell, my Phrosyne — farewell I must say. 



KoDxxo/, yd il^ XaX^tfirs, maxtkia, vd ^ovfiadnrs 
Kai (TiTg xavfiW 'A^jSavir/d oSXo/ va irixoaOn^s, 

X. r. K 

{Passotv, 219.) 

O CUCKOOS sing your song no more, and all ye birds be 

silent ! 
And ye Albanians everyone, be ye o'ercome with 

sorrow ! 
The citadel has given in, and fallen is Khoiimelitza ; 
Gardfki still is holding out, and she will not surrender ; 
But she to battle fain would go, she fain would go to 

AH PashA has heard of it, and greatly hath it vexed 

And furious he with both hands writes, and sends abroad 

his mandates : 

The Capture of Gardiki, 235 

* To thee, Lieutenant Yousouff ; to thee, Yousouf the 

Arab ; 
Now when thou shalt my letter see, and thou shalt see 

my mandates, 
Demftri shalt thou take alive, the same with all his 

I want, too, Moustaphd Pasha, with all his generation/ 

* I, joyfully, Pashd, will go ; I go to bring them to 

thee r 
And up arose Yousoufi then, and went forth to Gardfki. 
And as he went to war against and fight with the 

Ismdil Delvfno called to him, and shouted from Gardfki : 
'Where go'st, dear Yousouff Agd, dear Yousouff the 

Arab ? 
This place it is not YAnnina, nor is it Tepel^ni — 
It is Gardfki's famous town in all the world renowned, 
Where little children even fight ; and women too, give 

battle ; 
Where fights the brave Demfr Agd, a worthy pallikdri ; 
Three days, three long, hard days they fight, three days 

and nights they struggle, 
Ere they surrender to Yousouf, and to his hands submit 

them ; 
And only Ismdil still holds out, holds out within Gardiki/ 

* Come, 'SmdYl Bey, and thou shalt see the eyes of our 

Vizi^ri P 

* I never will submit to thee, and ne'er will I surrender ! 
I have a deadly gun to wield, and I've with me picked 

But they are scattered, sword in hand, Yousouf has made 

them prisoners, 
Ismail Bey he*s captive made, brave IsmaYl Delvfni, 
And prisoner made Demfr Agd, with him Demftri Dosti ; 

236 Greek Folk-Softgs. 

And taken them before the gate of Yannina's VizierL 
Low bend they there, liis skirt they hold, and kiss his 
hand so humbly. 

* We are to blame, my Lord Vizier ; we pray thee now 

forgive us !' 

* There's no forgiveness here for you, nor mercy will I 

show you ! 
Here! take these men, and drag them out unto the 

broad lake's marg^in ; 
Take you stout planks with you, I say ; of stout nails 

take you plenty. 
Off ^with you ! nail them to the planks, and in the 

waters throw them ; 
There let them swim the livelong day, the long day let 

them row there !* 




X, r. /^ 

(Aravandinos, 73.) 

There flew, flew out a little bird, flew out from Santa 

Maura ; 
Night after night he flew along, night after night was 

The klepht Vryk61akas he sought, and Thdmio BalAska. 
At last he found them, and unearthed them down by 


* Your health, my boys, and luck to you !' ' Thou'rt 

welcome here, my birdie ! 

The KUpht Vrykolakas. 237 

My little bird, tell us some news, tell us some joyful 

' What shall I tell you then, my boys, what tale shall I 

be telling ? 
Tore yesterday, and yesterday, I passed by Tsiounga's 

Their conversation there I heard ; oft, too, your name 

they mentioned. 
The 'guemenos the traitor was, as in his throat he took 

And to the kapitan you know he wrote and sent a letter : 
*' Again comes forth Vrykolakas, and with him klephts a 

dozen ; 
He's going to be crowned and wed, he's going to take 

Yannoiila." ' 

(1 8 16.) 

X, r. X. 

(Aravaudinos, 74.) 

Within the Castle's^ lofty walls, the great Vizier's 

Where are a thousand partridges, in chains, yet sweetly 

They yet another captive bring, a partridge all adom&l, 

Among the folds of Liakatd they've hunted and en- 
trapped her ; 

And every partridge sweetly calls, and she alone is 

^ All Pashd's Castle at lodnnina. See ItUrod,^ p. 26. 

238 Greek Folk-Songs. 

' Why, Despo, speak'st thou not to us, and why art thou 

so sullen ? 
Go in, the chamber to prepare, and change the mats and 

And I will come and gaze on thee, and we'll converse 


* I am not sullen, my Pashd, but I, PashA, have never 
Been taught to spread the mattresses, and lay the sheets 

in order ; 
I'm from the folds, a shepherdess, and this is all I ken, 

sir — 
The flocks and herds to feed and tend, and morn and 

eve to milk them ; 
The shepherd's gaiters coarse to knit, and curdle the 




MaD^o 9'ouXax/ TuiPp^ftfa/ wjch r'avrix^u Mi^y 

X. r. >.. 

{PassoWy 222.) 

* Black little bird that comest out, from other regions 

O say what weeping sore it is, what doleful lamentation 
They send from Parga's city out? it rends the very 

mountains ! 
Say, do the Turks attack her now, or does the battle burn 


' The Turks have not attacked her now, nor does the 
battle burn her ; 

' A kind of curd, usually eaten uncooked and with sugar, and 
thought particularly wholesome in spring and early summer. But 
the Armenians cook it with an herb called roka, and serve it with 
toast and butter. This roka^ a plant with small gp-een leaves, is 
also used as a salad. 

The Exile of the Parghiots. 239 

But all the Parghiots arc sold, are sold as goats and cattle.^ 
Ill-fated folk! now they must go, in exile must they 

sojourn ! 
They leave their homes, they leave the tombs, the graves 

of their forefathers ; 
They leave their holy place of prayer, by Turks it will 

be trodden ; 
Atid women tear their long black hair, and beat their 

fair white bosoms ; 
And all the aged loud lament with bitter lamentation ; 
The priests with weeping eyes take down the Icons from 

their Churches. 
Seest thou those lurid fires that bum, what black smoke 

from them rises ? 
There are they burning dead men's bones, the bones of 

those brave warriors 
Who put the Turks in mortal fear, the Vizier in a fever ; 
They are the bones of ancestors their children now are 

That the Lidpes find them not, nor Turks upon them 

trample. . 
Hear'st thou the wailing of the town which echoes 

through the forests ? 
And hearest thou the sounds of woe, the bitter lamenta- 
It is because they're driv'n away from their ill-fated 

country : 
They kiss her stones, they kiss the earth,* and to her soil 

Farewell say !'* 

^ The conduct of the British Hijj^h Commissioner of the Ionian 
Islands, Sir Thomas Maitland, in reference to Parga, was certainly, 
to say the least, open to very severe criticism. 

* Compare //. iv. ^22 : * And as he (Agamemnon) touched his 
own land, he kissed it.' 

' They have now, however, returned ; and I had the pleasure of 
making the acquaintance of prosperous merchants belonging to 
old Parghiot families. 

240 Greek Folk-Songs. 




''Xl \ry\)ph xaJ xufrtph c*r€t4i fuu^ 

X. r. X. 

{Kind^ Tpayuibia^ 12.) 

O THOU, my sword belov'd, so keen, I gird ! 
And shoulder thee, my gun, my flaming bird ! 

slay ye, slay the Turks again, 
The tyrants scatter o'er the plain ! 

Live thou, O sword I gird ! 
Long life to thee, my bird ! 

And when, O my good sword, I hear thy clash. 
And when, O my black gun, I see thy flash, 
That strew the ground with Turkish slain. 
And * Allah !' cry those dogs amain, 

No sweeter music's heard ; 

Long life to thee, my bird ! 

Now skies are dark, and thunder-clouded o'er, 
And tempest, rain, and flood, with Boreas roar ; 

1 climb the hills, and leave the plain, 
The mountain-passes wild I gain ; 

My country rises free — 
Long life, my sword, to thee ! 

Zito Hellas ! 241 

For the most holy faith of Christ ; for thee, 
Hellas, my fatherland, and liberty — 
It is for these that I would die ; 
Only while these live, live would I. 

If not for them to strive, 

Why longer should I live ? 

The hour has come, and loud the trumpets sound ; 
Now boiling is my blood, with joy I bound ; 
The banty the booniy the glin^ gUn, gloun 
Begin, and loud will thunder soon ; 

While Turks around me die, 

Hellas^ Hurrah ! I cry. 


X^vahg atr^ ixa^ouvrav tfrhv iJX/o x* i/Ladiovrav, 

K/ aXKos dtrhg r6¥t ^tardu xai rhv jSa^uo^fra^fi' 

X. r, X. 

{Passow, 8.) 

A GOLDEN eagle in the sun sat sad, and plucked his 

Another eagle questioned him, and earnestly he asked 

' Hullo, what is't has crossed thee now, thou sittest all 

so faded ?' 
' Last night I saw, saw in my sleep, while tranquilly I 

That I to the Pashd flew off, to Berat, into Koiirtfe ; 
And, while his guest, I heard him say the Albanians all 

were coming. 
Were coming down to Agrapha, to crush the klephtes 


^ Compare Od.^ xix. 545 : * But he (the eagle) came back, and 
sat him down on a jutting point, and with the voice of a man he 
spake.' ... 

242 Greek Folk-Songs. 

The eagle Boukovdlas heard, and to the fields de- 
His followers he gathered round, his retinue assembled. 
To them he told the evil dream, and by an oath he 

bound them, 
No more to trust to word of Turk so long as life was in 

He further charged and said to them, and called them 

round in council. 
And to the stronghold cried, and said to them within 

the loopholes : 
* Boys, take your weapons in your hands, and all comb 

out your tresses;^ 
The Turks are going to fall on us — an army of twelve 

And Metromdras then arose, and to his men he shouted : 
' Take heart, my warriors ! and show that ye are men and 

Christians ! ^ 
We'll clear the Turks from out the land ; here on this 

spot we'll slay them !' 
As lions roar they loud and long, as lions they make 

their sortie;* 

^ This recalls the story told by Herodotus (vii. 208—9) of the 
Persian spy who, on the eve of the battle of Thermopylae, reported 
that he had found the Spartans combing out their tresses ; and 
the reply made to Xerxes by Demaratus, that this meant that they 
would fight to the death. Compare Plutarch, Lycurg^, c. 22, and 
Xenophon, Rep. Lac, xii. § 8. 

2 Compare //. v. 529 : * My friends, quit you like men, and take 
heart of courage.' The term Christian is, among the Greeks, popu- 
larly applied only to members of the Orthodox, or Greek, Church, 
and other Europeans are called, not Christians, but Franks. An 
old hermit of Mount Athos, whom I visited in his cave, was unable 
to believe that, as an Anglos, I could be a Christian ; and, to please 
the poor old maniac, I performed the Orthodox rite of kissing an Icon 
of tlie Panaghia. The true equivalent of the XptcrtavoJ of the text 
would, therefore, be * Greeks * rather than * Christians.' 

' Compare //. v. 782 : * In the semblance of ravening lions.' 

Kostas Boukovdlas. 243 

They rush upon the Turkish ranks, like goats abroad 

they're scattered ; 
They slaughter and make prisoners as many as two 


But Kostas in the fight has fall'n, falFn are his two com- 

Who'd been in Goiira Armatoles, and Klephts had been 
in Z^gos. 

The fields lament them, and the hills, and all the vales 
are weeping ; 

The maidens of Phournd lament, for arts and wiles so 
famous ; 

And mourn the young Klephts for their Chiefs within 
the lone lem^ria.^ 



Mdva <roD Xfoi 6tv rnnToput roug Tovpxoug va dovXtvuy 

Aiv Tj/i'Toput, div 6\jvafji0ai^ i/ndXXiag* ij xapdid fMW 

X. r. X. 

{Passow, 153.) 
* I TELL thee, mother, never will I be to Turks enslaved ; 
I cannot, it is not for me — my heart would die within me. 
My gun I'll take, and I will go — I'll go and be a klephte. 
And on the mountains I will rove, and on the highest 

I'll for companions have the groves, with wild beasts I'll 

hold converse ; 
The snows I'll for my covering take, for couch the 

rocky ridges ; 
And with the. young Klephts all day long, I'll hide in a 

I go, my mother ; weep thou not, but give to me thy 


^ See p. 210, n. i. 

244 Greek Folk-Songs. 

Yea, bless me, little mother dear, that many Turks I 

And plant for thee a rose-bush fair, and plant a clove 

carnation ; 
With sugar thou must water them, musk-water pour 

upon them ; 
And when they blossom, mother mine, and when they 

put forth flowers, 
Know that thy son is living still, and 'gainst the Turk is 

But when that sad, sad day shall come, when comes 

that bitter morning, 
The morn when both those plants shall die, and faded 

hang their blossoms, 
Know that thy son all wounded lies — in weeds of black 

array thee.* 
Twelve years, twelve long, long years had passed, twelve 

years and fifteen months gone, 
And all that time the rose had bloomed and blossomed 

the carnation, 
Till dawned a morning bright of Spring, till dawned a 

May-day morning ; 
Sweet sang the birds within the groves, and all the 

heavens were laughing — 
One lightning-flash, one thunder-clap, and all was 

turned to darkness ! 
Then sadly the carnation sighed, the rose-tree tears 

was weeping ; 
At once they faded both and died, and fading shed their 

And with them faded, too,and died, the Klepht's unhappy 


The Klephfs Wintering. 245 



'E/J*apa6fixaif rSt divrpid, rd Mpfofioivi' d^T^/^ouv, 
K/' 0/ BXd^oi "irotv 'g rd y^ttfiabtd^ ran va ^t^nfAditovVy 

X. r. K 

(Aravandinos, 128.) 

The trees are faded, withered all, the hills with snow 

are glistening. 
The Vlachs into the lowlands go, they go for winter 

The Klepht, where shall he shelter find ? He leaves the 

His garb he changes,^ through the woods all silently he's 

No smile is there upon his lips, with head bent low he's 

striding ; 
He counts the passing days and nights, and waits the 

hour impatient. 
When spring shall open, beeches bud, and he gird on his 

With gun on shoulder, run again along the rocky ridges. 
And climb into the mountains high, and reach the 

Klephts' lem6ri,« 
To mingle with his company, and ply again his calling, 
To slay the Turk wherever found, to strip bare every 

And wealthy captives seize upon, to hold them fast to 


^ Exchanging the black kerchief and dirty-white kilt of the 
Klepht for the white fez and baggy breeches of the Peasant. 
' See p. 210, n. i. 


246 Greek Folk-Songs. 


"Hdt/;^ «'ou thai r& j^ouydl, v^vxi^ «d iV «i xdfi^jnt I 

X, r, X. 

{Aravandinos, 127.) 

How peaceful all the nx>antains lie, how peaceful lie the 

It is not death that they await, old age does not afflict 

them ; 
The spring-time only they await, and May, and summer 

To see the Vlachs upon the hills, to see the fair Vlach 

And listen to the music sweet that with their pipes 

they'll waken. 
While graze their sheep, around whose necks the heavy 

bells are tinkling. 
Again they'll set their sheepfolds up, and set up their 

Again the young Klepht boys will come for frolic and 

for dancing. 
The Klepht bands, too, will scour again the fields of fair 

Their Turkish foes to catch alive, and when they're slain 

to strip them. 
And golden sequins carry off, and then divide and share 

And give, perhaps, some two or so to fair and kind 

Vlach maidens. 
When stealing from them kisses two, with sweetest fun 

and frolic.^ 

^ rXvicoiraiyvi^<bct. 

Haidee. 247 



X, r. X. 
(JPassow^ 305.) 

Who fishes on the hills has seen, or deer upon the waters ? 
Who an unwedded girl has seen among the palliidria ? 
For twelve long years had HaYd^e lived an Armatole 

and Klephte, 
And no one had her secret learnt among her ten 

Till Eastertide came round again, the feast of Easter 

When all went forth with sword to play, to fence, and 

throw the boulder. 
Once Haid^e threw, and only once; ten times the 

So tightly prisoned was her form, her shame and her 

Did burst the fastenings of her vest, and showed her 

lovely bosom. 
One cries that it is gold he sees, another says 'tis silver ; 
One little Klepht has caught a glimpse, he knows what 

'tis fuU rightly. 
' That is no gold that ye have seen, nor is it even silver ; 
'Tis Haidde's bosom, nothing else — 'tis Haidde's hidden 

treasure !' 
' O, hush thee, hush thee, little Klepht ! and do not thou 

betray me ; 
And I for thee my life will give, I'll give thee all my 

weapons !' 


248 Greek Folk-Songs. 



Xia 6vh jMardxia yoCKam^ ytd b\)h ^Xuxeb [kardtxa* 

X. r. X. 

(Aravandinos, 142.) 
The livelong night sleep fled from me ; to-day I'm all 

For two sweet eyes^ for two sweet eyes, two eyes of 

sweetest azure. 
But I will steal them some dark night, some dark and 

moonless midnight, 
And to the hills I'll mount with them, high to the 

At midnight I will kiss them there ; at morn again I'll 

kiss them. 
Oft have I heard the partridge call, the nightingale oft 

warble ; 
Three times the cocks have crowed aloud, five times has 

screamed the peacock. 
Awaken, O my partridge-eyed ! Awake, and with me 

hasten ! 
And I will kiss the olive brown that on thy cheek's 

imprinted ! 



'lapdvra xkf^raig fj/Laffrs gapdtra x,apa/Lt6tS' 

K' sxdfAafA^ Spxo <frh cro-a^/, rptTg opxovg arb rovfixiy 

X, r. X, 

{PassoWy 146.) 

Once we were forty gallant Klephts, we numbered forty 


^ Placing it here, instead of in the Erotic Section^ may, perhaps, 
be excused by the completion thus given to the Song-picture of 
Klephtic life. 

The Death of the Klepht. 249 

Who'd made an oath upon the sword, three oaths on the 

That when a comrade should fall sick, then would we 

all stand by him ; 
Stand by him when the Fates should call, or Destiny^ 

demand him. 
The best of all the band fell ill, the richest and most 

One to another signs did make, and said to one another, 
* What, comrades, shall we do with him — a stranger in a 

strange land ?' 
And he replied and answered them, with lips all dry 

and parched : 
' Boys, take me in your friendly arms, and bear me in 

your bosoms, 
And dig me with your hands a grave in th' Earth that 

must devour me. 
Throw earth by handfuls, kisses throw, throw tears, and 

earth by handfuls ; 
But lay me on my face, your path I shall not then 

And when you see my mother dear, my long-expecting 

Who always looked for my return three times a year 

impatient — 
The first, Annunciation Day ; the second, Passion Sunday ; 
The third, the saddest time of all, was at the Resurrec- 
tion — 
Say not to her that I am dead, say not that they have 

killed me ; 
That I am married only say, and in a far, far country.' 

1 See ' The Moirai or Fates,' o^^v/, p. iii. 

250 Greek Folk-Son^. 




div xXa?irf rovg A^fJMrttXou^ xai riv xamrdkir SaCCa 

X, «; X, 

(A ravandinos, 81.) 
Oh, weep ye not, ye trees and tx>ughs? oh, weep ye 

not, low ridges ? 
Weep ye not for the Armatoles, and their brave 

Captain Sdbbas ? 
Lord Jesus I what will happen here, the summer that is 

coming ? 
In Goiira they're no longer seen, nor yet in Armyri6te. 
They say, to Yannina he's gone to give in his submission.^ 

* Effendi, many be your years !* * Ah, Sdbbas, thou art 

welcome ! 
How didst thou come ? how dost thou do ? how fare 
thy pallikaria ?* 

* Effendi, they submit themselves ; they've to the fields 

And I'm to thy protection come, to take hold of thy 
garment !' 




T^ta ^rouXax/a xdBouvrw xdru tfr^v 'AXa^etaia, 

Tova rfi^dii rri AuCadid xai r* &Xko rh Zfirovvt. 

X. r. X. 

{PassaWy 235.) 

Three little birds had perched themselves, and sat in 

Alamdna ; 

^ To Ismail Pash^ who was then victoriously besieging AU 
Pash^ whose hour was now come. 

Diakos the Armatole. 251 

One looked down to Livadia, another to Zetouni, 

The third — ^the best of all the three — a lamentation 

warbled : 
' Arise and flee, Di£kos mine, and let us to Livddia. 
Om^r Pash4*s attacking us — Om^r the Bey Vri6ne.' 
' Why, let the cuckold come along, and show himself, the 

apostate ! , 

We'll let him see the battle of the Armatole's to- 

phdiki ; 
We'll let him see Didkos' sword, how in red blood it 

revels !' 
When furiously the fight had waged from morning until 

Their guns they threw aside, and drew their swords from 

out the scabbards. 
And like wild lions on the Turks they made a desperate 

Three times the Othmans count their dead, three 

thousand find they missing. 
When call their roll the Armatoles^ they miss but three 

Leventes ; 
No one has gone to keep a feast, or gone to keep a 

Then cried Didkos unto them, with all his might he 

shouted : 
* My brother, Basil, where art thou ? thou, Ghi6rghi, my 

belovM ? 
Their blood ye shall require from him, from that Om^r 

Vri6ne ; 
Meantime go ! hither bring the Cross, and we'll all kiss't 


* Compare p. 242, and note 3. 

252 Greek Folk-Songs. 




Triv Ku£iax* qrav rut Bwyiuv, 2aCC(£ro roD Aa^ce^ou. 

X. r. X. 

{AravandinoSy 15.) 

One Saturday, as journeying, I passed by Missolonghi — 
It was Palm Sunday's eve, it was the Saturday of 

LazVus — 
I heard within a sound of woe, of tears and lamentation. 
Not for the slaughter did they mourn, nor for the dead 

were weeping ; 
Twas only for the bread they wept, for which the flour 

was lacking. 
Then from the Church a priest proclaimed, and called to 

all the people : 
' My children, young and old, approach ; come here to 

St. Nik61a ; 
Come for the last time and partake of the Communion 

holy r 
But from the rampart B6tsaris was calling to them loudly: 
' Whoe'er is brave, and swift of foot, a worthy pallikdri. 
Let him to th' Isles a letter take, to Hydra and to 

That they provision bring of corn, and we drive out our 

hunger ; 
And drive away the Arabs, too ; that dog Ibrahim with 

Where goest, I say, 'Brahfm Pashd, with thy worn-out 

old Arabs ? 
This place they call it Kdrleli, they call it Missolonghi, 
Where fight the valiant Hellenes still, like worthy palli- 

kdria t' 

Nasos Mantalos. 253 


NA202 MANTAA02. 

To^ \h oi xovxxoi *i r& /Soufa x* 17 Tf^d/xs( 'g r& irXdyia, 

Th Xfs/ XI* 6 Ttr^oxirctfog *g ha ^i^h dtvr^dxi, 

X. r. X. 

{Aravafidinos, 98.) 

The cuckoo sings it on the hills, and on the shore the 

And on a withered little tree our Peter-blackbird^ sings it; 
And as a funeral dirge they chant and sing the mournful 

ditty : 
' The noise of many guns I hear, and dismal is their 

Perhaps 'tis for a wedding, or perhaps 'tis for a feast-day ?' 
' They neither for a wedding fire, nor do they fire for 

But Ndso's battling, fighting hard against Hassdni Ghfka. 
Three days the fighting's lasted now, three days and 

nights the battle ; 
No water have they, bread they've none, no friend has 

come to aid them ; 
And now at break of day, at dawn, with sword in hand 

A red-wet road^ he opens wide, 'Farewell,' they say to 


^ This name given to the blackbird recalls the lines read long ago 
somewhere or other : 

' Art thou the Peter of Norway boors ? 
Their Thomas in Finland, 
And Russia far inland ? 
The darling of children and men, 
The bird who, by some name or other, 
All men who know thee call their own brother ? 
Our dear little English Robin !' 

> Yi6muvov Sp6ftoy, literally a * red road.' But Bums has ' red-wat- 

254 Greek Folk-Songs. 




X. r. X. 

{Oikonomides, A. 32.) 

What aileth thee, O wretched crow, that thou art cr>*- 

ing and screaming? 
It may be thou dost thirst for blood, or thirstest thou for 

Come out high over K6siako, high over Kalabdka, 
And down towards the river look, and down to Krea- 

Vrissi ; 
There Turkish bodies thou shalt see, thou shalt see 

headless bodies,^ 
Where they have shut up Alid Bey, and with him troops 

four thousand. 
The bullets fall as thick as rain, and cannpn-balls as 

And see, those muskets pour their shot like to the small 

rain falling. 
Hold out, O Hadji Petros mine, against the Liip* 


^ This was the last battle of the futile Greek Insurrection during 
the Crimean War. Sec IfUrod.^ p. 30, n. 27. 

■ They were really Arab mercenaries over whom the Greeks 
gained the victory in the Upper Glen of the Penei6s which preceded 
their defeat at Kalab^ca, where the forces of Abdi Pasha and 
Fuad Efiendi formed a junction, as, of old, those of Caesar and 

' It was the Albanians of this tribe who turned the fortune of the 
day against the Greeks. 

Kapitan Basdekis. 255 



X. r. X. 

{pikonotnideSy A. 85.) 

The pallikars, so gallant all, unjustly have been 

With lying words and treachery, with great and grievous 

Upon the cross-roads there they lie, so many headless 

bodies ; 
Elach traveller that passes by^ stands still and thus he 

asks them : 

* O bodies, say, where are your heads ? O say, where 

are your weapons ?' 
' O may that leader be accursed, that Kapitan Basdekis, 
Who did not shame to sell himself at Volo, in the 

fortress !' 

* May you live long, Hobdrt Pashd !** * Thou'rt welcome, 

my Basd^kl 
Ho, there! make ready coffee, quick, and fill a long 

chiboiiki ; 
And send two ladies here to us, to talk to and amuse him. 
And he'll relate his grievances, and tell us all his troubles. 

1 One of the leaders of the Pelion Insurrection in which Mr. 
Ogle perished— 'killed or murdered See IntrocL^ p. 30, n. 29. 

' I wonder whether our Turcophile Admiral is aware that his 
interview with the Insurgent has been thus graphically described 
in Greek Folk-song ? 

256 Greek Folk-Songs. 

How many rebels were with you, how many Baulouk" 

'Insurgents forty once were we, and had ten Bou- 

And ne'er a one of all our band who was not strong and 

Until the time when sickness seized our first, our eldest 

For forty days we carried him, and bore him on our 

Till worn out had our shoulders grown, and ragged was 

our clothing ; 
And one unto the others said, and to his fellows 

murmured : 
" Boys, shall we go and leave him here, here in this ditch 

bestow him ?" 
And the poor wretch heard what he said^ and then he 

fell a-weeping. 
" My boys, my boys, don't leave me here, within this 

ditch don't leave me ; 
But take me hence, and carry me up to the ridge that's 

That nightingales may be my mates, and I with birds 

may gossip. 
Until the spring shall come again, and come once more 

May's summer, 
When mountains dress them in the green, and gay are 

the lem^ria. 
When come th' Insurgents on the hills, and Vlachs their 

black sheep leading.' 

») 9 

^ Commanders. 

Themistocles Doumouzos. 257 




OXf^fAtpiig M rh ^puf ^rrixpdt, XaXtTxai Xiytt, 

X. r. X. 

(Oikonomides, A. 89.) 

A LITTLE bird had perched itself on AYlii in Rdpsan^^ 
And all the day, from early dawn, a bitter song was 

wailing : 
'Olympus have I wandered o'er, the country round 

And now from Hellas am I come, nor there could I 

That Kapetan Themistocles, the gallant pallikdri ; 
But bitter tidings gathered I, as on the road I travelled : 
By faithless Rapsaniots he's slain, for they have given 

him poison. 
Accursed be thou, O Rdpsand, thou who hast done this 

With treachery thou hast destroyed the Chief of all the 

Hoar are the ridges for his sake, for him the towns are 

The Konidrs he made to quake, for fear of him they 

And ne'er a one was there who dared to meddle with a 


^ DomouB is the Turkish for a ' pig.' 

' A famous village on the Lower Olympus. I spent several days, 
before Christmas, 1880, boar-hunting in its neighbourhood. But I 
am unable to say whether the accusation here brought against its 
inhabitants is well founded or not. 

258 Greek Folk^Songs. 

Katarrachids, Kal6yeros, the Chief of the Klepht Captains,^ 
These too bear witness to his worth, and talk of all 

his bravery ; 
They vaunt his swiftness in the chase, and greatly praise 

his freedom. 
Upon Olympus he was famed, a stag in all his glory ; 
With silver ornaments he shone, like snow upon the 

Said I not, my Themistocles, to Rdpsan^, O go not ; 
For very faithless are its folk, and evil will befall thee ?* 
* I went to see my native town, I went to see my 

kinsfolk ; 
The thought had never come to me, nor could I ever 

That they who were my dearest friends would seek to 

give me poison/ 

^ To capture these gentlemen, and their bands, a corps d^armie 
was organized in the autumn of 1881 ; and by Uie favour of Salyh 
Pasha, the Commander-in-Chief, I was permitted to accompany it 
for six weeks — this being the only way in which it was then possible 
to ascend Olympus, or explore its environs. 



ArAVANDINOS. — S^XXoy^ StjfuaSiiv H^'cipiurucwv ^fiarov, l8So. 

Blackie. — ffora HelUnica, 1874. 

Blanchard. — Pohms pairiotiqtus de Valaoritts, 1883. 

Chassiotis. — S^XXoyi) rSnf Kard rt^v 'Hirctpov UiunvsSiv ifffiArop, 1866. 

COKZE. — /^eise caifden Insdn des Thrakischen Metres^ 

XpovoyfM^ia riJQ 'Rirtipov. 1 856. 

Drosinus. — Ldndliche Brufe-^Land und Lcute in Nord-Eubda, 1 884. 

EVLAMPIOS.— 'O ^AfiapavTOQ, 1 843. 

Fauriel. — Chants popuiaires de la Grke ttiodeme, 1824. 

FiRMENICH. — TpayovSuz Fwfid'iKa, 1867. 

Geldart. — Folk-Lore of Modem Greece, 1884. 

Glennie. — Samothrace and its Gods^ Contemporary Review, May, 1882. 

Hahn. — Griechische und Albanische Mdrchen, 1864. 

Heuzey.— Z^ Mont Olympe, i86a 

Iatkidos. — Z^XXoy^ itjfiortKCiv ^fidmfv, '859. 

I KEN £vNOMiA.~Vols. I. and II. 

Kind. — TpayovSia r^c ^*fV EXXci^oc. 1835. — Mvtifdffwcv, 1849. — 

Antkclogie, 1844. 
Legrand. — Chansons popuiaires grecques, 1876. — Recueil de Poemes 

historiques, 1 877. 
Lelekos. — Ac/ioruc^ *Av9o\oyi€L 1 868. 
Macphbrson. — Poetry of Modem Greece, 1884. 
Manasseidos. — AioXcicroc Aivov, 'I/ilpot;, cat Tivkiov, Houahi oXiy €| 

Atvov Kal IfiJQpa. 
Manousos. — TpayovSia lOvucd, c. r. X. 185a 
Marcbllus. — Chants du Peuple en Grece, 1851. 
OlKONOMIDBS. — TpayovSia rov 'OXvftirov, 1881. 
Oppenheim. — Vblhs und Freiheitslieder, 1842. 
Pagounos.— 'Hircipwruc^ ^oXcicroc. 

26o Bibliography of Greek Folk- Lore, 

Pandora^ Bfifupis rijs EXXa^o;. 

PanhelUmc Annual. 

Vashzly,^ Travels in Crete, 1837. 

Passow. — Popularia Carmina Gretcia Recentioris, i860. 

Pamassos^ NeoeXXcvurd dviiSMKra, 1870 — 71. 

^tXoXoyiicdc (TvviKSrifio^, 1 849. 

POLITOS. — rXoffffoXoyiKt^ <rvfi€6\fi, 

Ross. — Peisen an/ den Griech, Inseln des Aegaeischen Meeres, 1840. 

Sanders. — Das Volksleben der Neugriechen, 1844. 

SCHAUB. — Potmes grecs modcrftes, 1844. 

Schmidt. — Das Volksleben der Neugriechefi, 1871. 

Sheridan.— T'/i^ Songs of Greece, 1 826. 

Stamatellos. — S^XXoy^ tSkv ^iavruw ftvrifiiitifv Iv lij yXuaaa rov Aevca^iW 

TephARIKI. — AtavoTpdyovSa, 1868. 
TOMMASEO. — Canti popolari, 1 841. 
Tozer.— 7^4/ Highlands of Turkey, 

ValaoRITES. — MvriftSisvva gafiara. 1861. — 'H Kvpd ^potrvtnri, 1859. 
Zambelios. — 'Aafiara Stjfiorucd rijg *EXk&dos, 1852. 
ZaNNETOS.— 'H *OfiipiKt) i^pamg. 1 883. 


Elliot Stocky Paternoster Rowt London. 






^P I. It is from the publication of Macpherson's Ossiait in 1 760, and 
H^ the European enthusiasm excited by Ihat work, in which breathed 
' the very soul of the Keltic genius,'* that, as I have briefly pointed 
out in the Prtface, the collection, all over Europe, of National 
Antiquities and Folk-lore is to be dated. Aubrey, indeed, 
published his Miscellanies in 1686, and Bourne his Antiguitates 
Vulgares \a 1725. But no more than the fact that the term 
'Folk-lore' dates but from 1846,'' does the previous publication of 
these and other such isolated works before 1760 invalidate the 
conclusion just expressed, that the general European movement 
of research into National Antiquities and Folk-lore Is to be dated 
' from the enthusiasm excited by that epoch-making book, Fingal: 
I An AneimI Epie Poem. Synchronous with the enthusiasm excited 
[ by Macpherson's Ossian was that which hailed the Emile wid 
I' other works of his great contemporary of the old Keltic Highlands 
I of Switzerland," Rousseau. And great as were, in the social and 
I political world, the events directly traceable to the influence of 
I the writings of Rousseau, even greater as social and political 

* AiNOLn, Oft Ikt Study a/Crllu Lileralart, p. 15J. 

* The tem wu auggested by Mr. Thnms In ihr Athmatm of thil 
ml Ihtoucb hi> cfTortii in 1S78 th( Colk-lurc Society 

* There appear to be (till the reionitit uf an iiidigcnooi Keltic population ia 
I th« Val d'Anni»ier», See Bbrndt. Dai Thai J'AHnivien fid ilai Basiim dt 
^Sttrrt. Ergamvngthefi 1%, to. FitkkiiIANn's MitiheUungr*, Goih*. iSSi. 

262 The Science of Folk- Lore. 

' I ■ ■ ■ ' ■ 

events, though later in their occurrence, were those National 
Revivals directly traceable to the historical researches which re- 
ceived their great impulse from the work of Macpherson. But 
synchronous also with the Ancient E^ Poem of Macpherson was 
that essay on 27ie Natural History of jReli^n (17$^)^ in which 
his great countryman, Hume, laid the foundation of the New 
Philosophy of History. And as Introduction to a Classification 
of Folk-lore, I propose' now to point out that the results attained 
and development now reached by these researches into National 
Antiquities and Folk-lore have the most important bearing on the 
further development of the New Philosophy of History. For it 
is just because of the problems which are now presented to the 
historian by the greater results of the study of Folk-lore that a 
Scientific Classification of its facts has become indispensably 
necessary. And hardly need it be remarked that, if there has 
been, in the past, a close connection between Folk-lore Studies and 
such political and social events as National Revivals, there will, in 
the future, be a connection no less close between the completion 
of the New Theory of History, opposed as it is to the Christian 
Theory of it, and political and social events of a far larger 
character. And this, indeed, is now, or ought to be, the in- 
spiration of the true scholar and thinker, that, however remotely, 
still even remotely, he may contribute, not merely to the 
* augmentation of the sciences,* but to * laying the foundations of 
human happiness and enlargement ' — utilitatis et amflitudinis 
humana fundanunta moliri'^ 

2. Now, the resuhs of the last hundred years of the collection 
and study of Folk-lore that have, of all others, the most important 
bearing on the further development of the New Philosophy of 
History are, perhaps, the following three. If, as we may presently 
see reason for, we treat the study of Savage-lore as, if not included 
in, a necessary complement of, that of Folk-lore, we may say that 
the first of the greater results of these studies has been the re- 
cognition in contemporary Savage-life, and even in contemporary 
Folk-life, though generally in a modified and less complete form — 
the recognition of conceptions and stories precisely similar to those 
which we find in the great Classic Mythologies. The recognition 

* Bacon, Instaur, Mag, Prof, Works (EUis and Spedding), vol. i., p. 132. 

The Results of the Study of Folk-Lore, 263 

of such a fact could not but suggest a new Theory of the origin of, 
and hence of the Method of interpreting, these Mythologies. The 
old Philological Theory and Method has consequently been more 
and more set aside, and a new Anthropological, or, as I should 
ratlier say, Koenoniological,'^ Theory and Method has been corre- 
S{)ondingIy substituted ; but far still is the problem of the origin of, 
and method of interpreting, the Classic Mythologies from anything 
like an adequate historical solution. Another of the greater results 
of these studies has been the recognition of the extraordinary 
identities of Folk-tales all over the world. The cause, or rather 
Causes, of these Identities are still only partially known, or, it may 
be, only guessed at. But in setting forth these identities the 
students of Folk-lore have presented a problem to the historian 
which cannot but importantly stimulate research, and perhaps, in 
its solution, verify deduction. And a third great result of the 
study of Folk-lore has been the recognition of that fact to 
which I have more particularly called attention, as having been 
especially struck with it in my study of Greek Folk-songs — the fact 
of the extraordinary degree to which the conceptions of Paganism 
have persistently survived under the domination of the New Moral 
Religions, and particularly in the West, under, and notwithstanding, 
the domination of Christianity for nearly two thousand years. The 
general characteristics of Paganism I have defined in the Introduc- 
tory Essay above, p. 8. I have also shown that at least one of the 
Causes of the Survival of Paganism among the Aryans of the West 
is to be found in the antagonism of that Semitic conception of 
Miracle, which is the very core of Christianity, to the distinctively 
Aryan conception of Law. And an illustration may thus have 
been afforded of the profound problems which are presented to 
the historian by that most general of all the results of the study 
of Folk-lore, the survival of Paganism — Folk-lore consisting, in 
fact, but of the various records of that survival. • 

3. Such, then, are the greater results of the study of Folk-lore ; 
and the greater problems they present to the historian are the 
problem of the origin of, and hence Method of interpreting, the 

* • Anthropology * is, in my Classification of the Sciences, the term used to 
designate the Historical Sciences of Physical Evolution ; and ' Kcenoniologr * 
I would fain substitute for the barbarous term * Sociology * as the name of the 
Historical Sciences of Social Progress. See below, p. ^2. 

264 The Science of Folk-Lore. 

Classic Mythologies ; the problem of the Causes of the Identities 
of Folk-tales ; and the problem of the Causes of that Survival 
of Paganism of which Folk-lore is the record. Recognition by 
the historian of Civilization of the facts presenting such problems 
is evidently necessary, and the circuit of his studies must be now 
correspondingly enlarged. Hitherto historical studies have been 
confined almost solely to the records of Culture-lore, and it is 
from these that the generalizations of historians have been almost 
exclusively drawn. But Folk-lore, and the facts revealed by the 
study of it, can assuredly now be no longer neglected by the 
student of History, and, least of all, by the student of that Modem 
Age of which the New Moral Religions of Buddhism, Christianism, 
and Islamism have been the chief distinguishing features. Folk-lore 
must now be more systematically studied as the complement of the 
study of Culture-lore.^ But even the definitions of Folk-lore and of 
the science of Folk-lore are not yet fixed, and the records of Folk-lore 
are in a state of chaos. In order, therefore, to the scientific study 
of Folk-lore as the complement of Culture-lore, one must attempt 
scientifically to fix the definition of one's subject, and scientifically to 
arrange one's materials. For such a task one might have imagined 
that none would be more competent than the Director and Council 
of the Folk-lore Society. Their proposed Handbook of Folklore^ 
however, written by the Director, corrected by, and published at 
the request of, the Council of the Folk-lore Society,*^ does not ap- 
pear likely to justify what might have seemed reasonable anticipa- 
tions with reference to the Definition, and the Classification of 
Folk-lore, however valuable it may, in other respects, be 

^ As an illustration of the importance of the study of Folk-lore, in studying 
even the history of Philosophy, I may cite Dr. Tylor's elucidation from Folk- 
lore of the theory of Perception of Democritus. Primitive Culture^ vol. i, pp. 
449* 450. Further illustration of the importance of the study of Folk-lore as 
the complement of the study of Culture-lore may be found in Fustel, Db 
COULANGES, FrobUmes cTHistoire ; Hearn, 7 he Aryan Household ; Elton, 
Origins of English History ; Sv.EBOHMf English Village Communities; GOHME, 
Folk-lore Relics of Early Village Life; Miss Burnk's Shropshire Eolk-lore^ 
etc. In the last-named work, different Dialects and Folk -customs are shown to 
point to the conclusion that the north-east and south-west of the county were 
colonized by different setb of invaders. 

* Minute 0/ Council, fanuary 12, 1887 : * That Mr. Gomme be requested 
to print his MS. of the proposed Handbook of Folk- lore, and that proofs of the 
several sections be sent to the Members of Council for correction, addition, or 

The Classification of Folk-Lore, 265 

found. ^ And hence it is that, in order to a new, and largely 
Historical, rather than the too usual narrowly Antiquarian, study 
of Folk-lore — in order, in other words, to make it possible to 
take up the great problems above indicated with all the required 
facts of Folk-lore, naturally, and hence scientifically classified — in 
order to make Folk-lore duly auxiliary to a further development of 
the New Philosophy of History, I venture to submit the following 
statement of the' principles of a Natural Classification of Folk-lore. 



I. First, as to the definition of terms. In the proposed Handbook 
of the Folk-lore Society, * the definition of Folk-lore, as the Society 
will in future study it,' is thus stated : * The scientific study of the 
survivals of archaic beliefs, customs, and traditions in modem 
ages.*^ But on this it is surely obvious to remark that, though the 
Science of Folk-lore might, though somewhat loosely, be defined 
as a * scientific study' of something, Folk-lore, 'as the Folk-lore 
Society will in future study it,' can hardly be satisfactorily defined 
as itself a * scientific study.' Just as well might one define, not 
Mechanics, but Motion, the subject of Mechanics as ' the scien- 
tific study of movement.' Nor if we take what is given as the 
definition of Folk-lore to be a definition of the Science of Folk- 
lore, can we find it much more satisfactory. For we should thus 
have Folk-lore defined as certain ' survivals,' and the Science of 
Folk-lore as * the scientific study of these survivals.' And indeed 
the inadequacy of such a definition has been clearly seen by 
several of the members of the Folk-lore Society. Mr. Nutt, Mr. 
Hartland, and Mr. Wade all define the Science of Folk-lore as a 
department of Anthropology — * dealing with primitive man/ says 
Mr. Nutt f ' with the psychological phenomena of uncivilized 
roan,' says Mr. Hartland ;^ ' with the psychological phenomena of 

^ The book has not been yet published, Easter, 1888. But I confine my 
critidsm to the Definition and Classification of Folk-lore given by the Director 
in the Folk-lore Journal ^ repeated in the oroof-sheets of the Handbook^ and, so 
far as I can ascertain, sanctioned by the Council. My criticism, as indeed, this 
whole E^ssay is but an elaboration of my papers in the Folk-lort Journal^ March, 
July, and December, 1886. 

* Compare Mr. Gommb*s paper on The Science of Folk-lore^ Folk-Ure 
/oumal,M,nich 1885, p. 14. 

s /did., October, 1885. « /Hd., November, 1884, and June, 1885. 

primitive man,' says Mr. Wade.' Better, however, appears lo 
the definition suggested by Miss Burae,* 'the Science which 
of all that the Folk believe or practise on the authority of il 
herited uadiiion, and not on the authority of written records.* 
But widest and most suggestive of all seems to me the dcfinitli 
of Signor Machado y Alvarei: :* ' Folk-lore includes two chj« 
branches : Demopsyc/iology, or the science which sltidies the s]iiril 
of the people ; and Demobiography, which is not the sum of thi 
biographies of the individuals who compose the said aggregati 
but the description of ihe mode of life of the people taken in th« 

The definitions I would myself propose are the following ; f( 
there are three terms that must be defined in order to anythii 
like a clear and scientific definition of the Science of Folk-lote — -1 
Folk, Folk-lore, and then, Scuna of folk-lore. By the i-olk I mean 
people unaffected by Culture; people relatively unaffected by 
culture, like the Uncultured Classes of a civilized state ; peopK 
absolutely unaffected by culture like Savages, unvisited as yet b]rJ 
Missionaries. Were it not for the vogue given to what I veBli 
to think ibe equally inaccurate and unfortunate use of the 
' Primitive Culture,'* to designate those savage and barbaric 
ditions in which there is no culture, in the usual sense of the word, 
this definition of ' Folk ' would be perfectly clear without erplann- 
tory remark. As it is, it may be necessary lo say that, a^ ' Culture,' 
in the usual sense of the word, certainly implies the conscious use 
of means for the increase of powers of production, whether physical 
or mental, it should certainly imply, when used with reference to a 
stale of society, the existence of that great means for the conscious 
increase of powers. Written Records. And now, as to the definition 
of Folk-lore. How can we at once more simply and more scienti- 
fically define Felklore than as Folk's lore, that is to say, the lore 

* The iiwccurBcy ind hence conruiioii in Di. Trior's use of Itiu 
be illustrated by hii finding it necessity lo nse $uch phrases is ' the lelstion 
nvige lo cultured life ' — though wvnge, barbaric, ond dvi!i«d lift ate ill with 
him staget of Culture or ot ' cultured life.' 'Primitive Culture ' seenu really 
to nieiui with Or. Tjloi Friinitive Society, or Primitive ThouehL And why *-" 
did not use one or other of these appuenlly aplei leitiii is nol ~'~~~ 

The Classification of Folk-Lore. 267 

the folk about their own Folk-life in its various expressions in 
Customs, in Sayings, and in Poesies— and the lore, therefore, 
knowledge of which gives knowledge of Folk-life ? And the relation 
of Folk-lore, more strictly so-called to Savage-lore, will be evident 
from the above distinction between people relatively, and people 
absolutely unaffected by culture. In the one case, the various 
Cosmical, Social, and Historical conceptions expressed in Customs, 
Sayings, and Poesies have been, in the other case, they have 
not been, altered and disintegrated by the influence of Culture 
— or, more definitely, by the action of men with Written Records, 
and hence, higher and more systematized conceptions. 

Before attempting now to give a definition of the Science of 
Folk-lore^ let me remark that the Sciences are simply systematized 
and co-ordinated Knowledges. Systematized, and co-ordinated. 
For Knowledges to be truly Sciences must be not only systematized, 
but systematized on such principles as to be capable of co-ordination 
with the whole circle of systematized Knowledges, or Sciences. 
And for this good reason. The fulfilment of this condition of 
co-ordination will be a verification of the principles of systematiza- 
tion. And now we shall see that, if Folk-lore is defined as the lore 
of the Folk about their own Folk-life, the Science of Folk-lore can be 
no otherwise defined than as systematized knoivledge of the lore 
of the Folk capable of co-ordination with other systematized Know- 
ledges, Hence, when a Science of Folk-lore has been definitively 
constituted, the man of culture will not only have acquired his 
knowledge of Folk-lore otherwise than by tradition, like the man 
of the Folk, but such knowledge as he has will exist in a different 
state — as a system of related, not a chaos of unrelated Knowledges; 
and more — as a system of related Knowledges capable of co-ordina- 
tion with other systematized Knowledges. It will be sufficiendy 
evident from this definition of the Science of Folk-lore why I prefer 
the definitions by the members of the Folk-lore Society above cited 
to that by the Director of the Society, whether sanctioned, or not, by 
the Council. And if it is not now sufficiently evident why, though I 
thus prefer all these definitions, I cannot accept any of them, it will, 
I trust, be so in the sequel, when I define the place of the Science of 
Folk-lore in the system of the Historical Sciences (§ 7). But why 
especially I prefer the definidon of Signor Machado y Alvarez, will 

268 The Science of Folk- Lore. 

be evident from a much earlier section (§ 3). For, as will there be 
pointed out, it is essential to the constitution of a Science of Folk- 
lore that we distinguish between the Conceptions of Folk-life and 
the Expressions of Folk-life. And the definition of Signor Machado 
y Alvarez shows appreciation of the importance of this capital 

2. Concluding, then, that the Science of Folk-lore is best defined 
as the systematized and co-ordinated knowledge of the lore of the 
Folk, we have next to inquire how we shall best proceed ia 
attempting to Systematize and Co-ordinate our Knowledge of Folk- 
lore ? We may proceed either empirically or scientifically, that is 
to say, either without any regard to principle, and considering 
only what may seem to be convenient, or founding on some 
definite principle which will bring the Science into relation with 
the other Sciences. It is unfortunately the former or empirical 
method that appears to have been chosen by the Director of the 
Folk-lore Society. In terms characteristic of the Empirical 
Method, he says, that * Folk-lore may be divided into four radical 
groups, each of which consists of several sub-groups or classes.' 
And of course it may be thus — or in any other way— divided. 
But scientific division is deduced from some larger, or correlated, 
and verifiable principle. And groups not thus deduced, and 
hence merely empirically determined, can only be compared to 
groups of pre-scientific Botany — Trees, Bushes, Flowers, and 
Ferns. One or more of such groups may, by chance, happen 
to correspond with a scientific gtoup, or natural division; but 
this will not save the general scheme from condemnation. The 
only justification, however, on which such classifiers as pre-scientific 
Botanists rely, is that their Classifications are easily understood 
by, and convenient for. Collectors. The authors, however, of the 
now accepted Scientific Classification of Plants — the Scotchmen, 
Morison and Brown, and afterwards, the Frenchmen, De Jussieu 
and De CandoUe — did, certainly, not give the Plant-collector one 
moment's consideration in working-out their Classification. Nor 
need the author of a Scientific Classification of Folk-lore give any 
more consideration to the Folklore-collector. And for this good 
and sufficient reason. A Scientific Classification is derived from 
the study of constitution and organology ; and it is, therefore, a 


The Classification of Folk- Lore. 269 

Classification in this sense, that it relates things to each other in 
accordance with what is really most essential in their characteristics. 
Such a Classification may not, indeed, at first, seem so easy and 
admirable as that into Trees, and Bushes, Flowers, and Ferns ; 
yet, even by the Collector, it will be found, in the long-run, more 

But how shall we start in endeavouring to work-out a Scientific 
Classification of Folk-lore ; that is to say, a Classification natural 
in this sense, that it brings things into relation that are not merely 
superficially, but essentially of the same kind ? Folk-lore I have 
defined as the lore of the Folk about their own Folk-life. But, if 
we thus define Folk-lore, our starting-point in endeavouring to 
work-out a Scientific or Natural classification of Folk-lore should 
be evident The Natural Classification of Plants is derived from 
the results of a study of the Organology of Plants. And similarly 
— if Folk-lore is the lore of .the Folk about their own Folk-life — the 
Natural Classification of Folk-lore can be derived only from the 
results of the study of the Psychology of Folk-life. 

What, then, are the results of a study of the Psychology of 
Folk-life, with a view to the classification of the Records of Folk- 
lore ? The Psychological Elements of Folk-life can be nothing 
else than the most general Data of Human Consciousness, the 
most general Activities of Human Intelligence, and the most 
general Modes of Human Expression. Now, the most general 
Data of Human Consciousness are (i) an External World; (2) 
Social Relations ; and (3) an Ancestral World. The most general 
Activities of Human Intelligence are (i) Imagination, (2) Passion, 
and (3) Memory. And the most general Modes of Human Ex- 
pression are (i) Action, (2) Speech, and (3) Fiction. But these 
three classes of Elements reduce themselves to two classes — Con- 
ceptions, and Expressions of these Conceptions. For the External 
World, Social Relations, and the Ancestral World do not exist 
independently, but only in the Conceptions, which are the results 
of the interaction of Mental Activities and Environing Conditions. 
But though Imagination, Passion, and Memory all act in unifying 
and shaping the phenomena of the External World, in determin- 
ing feelings and beliefs with regard to Social Relations, and 
in creating and environing with an Ancestral World, Imagina- 

2 70 The Science of Folk-Lore. 

tion is, with the Folk, or generally with those unaffected by Culture, 
the chief faculty by which the phenomena of the External Woild 
are unified and shaped ; Passion is the chief faculty by which 
beliefs with regard to Social Relations are determined; and 
Memory is the chief faculty by which the environment of an 
Ancestral World is created and maintained. Nor is such a psycho 
logical Analysis unverifiable. It not only is verified by, but affords 
means of explaining, the facts of historical development The 
conception of environment by an Ancestral World, and less ex- 
travagant conceptions of the External World, and of Social Rela- 
tions, are late developments ; and they are late developments 
because the conditions are late of that activity of Memory which 
mainly produces traditional conceptions of the Ancestral World, 
and primarily corrects imaginative conceptions of the Elxtemal 
World, and of Social Relations. 

3. And now, to apply this Psychological Analysis of Folk-life in 
working-out a Natural Classification of Folk-lore. We have just 
seen that, though the abstract ultimate elements of Folk-life are 
of three classes — Data of Consciousness, Mental Activities, and 
Modes of Expression — the proximate concrete elements of Folk- 
life are but of two classes — Conceptions and Expressions ; and 
that, corresponding to the Data of Consciousness to which form 
is given by Mental Activities, Conceptions are of three primary 
kinds — Conceptions of an External World, of Social Relations, and 
of an Ancestral World. It has now only to be added that, as Action, 
Speech, and Fiction are the three Modes of Expression, according 
as Action, or Speech, or Fiction predominates in a Class of Ex- 
pressions, they may be distinguished as Customs, or Sayings, or 
Poesies. But if we distinguish as we must thus psychologically 
distinguish between the Conceptions of the Folk, and the Expres- 
sions by the Folk of their Conceptions, we must correspondingly 
distinguish also between the Contents of Folk-lore, and the 
Records of Folk-lore. And thus our analysis of Folk-lore leads 
to what I venture to think must be the first and cardinal distinc- 
tion made in a system of Knowledge worthy of being called a 
Science of Folk-lore. That first and cardinal distinction is the 
distinction between, on the one hand, the Conceptions of Folk- 
life and the Contents of Folk-lore \ and, on the other hand, the 

The Classification of Folk- Lore. 271 

Expressions of Folk-life, and the Records of Folk-lore : between 
Folk-conceptions of the External World, of Social Relations, and 
of an Ancestral World, and the Folk-customs, Folk-sayings, and 
Folk-poesies in which Expression is given to these Conceptions. 

No such distinction, however, as this is made by the. Director 
of the Folk-lore Society, nor does it seem likely that we shall find 
it in the Handbook sanctioned by the Council As we have seen, 
the Method of Classification deliberately adopted by the Director 
is the Empirical, as distinguished from the Scientific, Method; 
in other words, his Classification is regulated only by what super- 
ficially seems convenient, and not by any definite principle 
through which the Science with which he deals may be co-ordi- 
nated with the other Sciences. Such Empirical procedure may, 
as has been said, chance to issue in one or more results 
more or less in accordance with those derived from a definite 
Scientific Principle. And thus, just as, in the Pre-scientific 
Classification of Plants into (i) Trees, (2) Bushes, (3) Flowers, 
and (4) Ferns, the last group accords more or less with a 
Natural Class ; so, in the proposed Classification of Folk- 
lore, into (i) Superstitious Beliefs and Practice, (2) Traditional 
Customs, (3) Traditional Narratives, and (4) Folk-speech, the later 
groups, to a certain degree, accord with Natural Classes. Not 
only, however, is the Folkspeech-group just as detached in this 
Folk-lore Classification from any sort of Scientific Principle as the 
Fern-group in the Pre-scientific Botanical Classification ; but we 
have, in the Superstitious-Beliefs-and-Practice-group, a class 
which, in the relation in which it is made to stand to Traditional 
Customs, etc., is even more opposed to any sort of Scientific 
Principle than is the relation of the Bush-group to the Tree-group 
on the one hand, and the Flower-group on the other. The only 
accurate parallel, indeed, that one can imagine to such a Classifi- 
cation of Folk-lore as this would be a Classification of Egypto- 
logy into (1) Hieroglyphic Records; (2) Hieratic Records; (3) 
Demotic Records ; and (4) Superstitious Beliefs and Figures. Por 
not one whit more completely is our knowledge of Egyptian 
Beliefs drawn from Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic Records, 
than is our knowledge of Folk-superstitions drawn from Folk- 
customs, Folk-speech, and Folk-poesy. And not one whit more 
illogical and unnatural would be this imagined Classification of 

272 The Science of Folk- Lore. 

Egyptology than is this proposed Classification of Folk-lore in 
the official Handbook of the Science. 

Nor is this question of Classification by any means a question 
of mere Logic. That cardinal distinction to which we have been 
led by that Psychological Analysis of Folk-life which is the only 
possible basis of a Natural Classification of Folk-lore^ — that cardinal 
distinction between the Conceptions of Folk-life and the Ex- 
pressions of Folk-life is of the utmost practical importance with 
reference to the whole method of our study of Folk-lore. For 
what are ' Superstitious Beliefs ' but simply certain kinds of Con- 
ceptions of the External World, of Social Relations, and of the 
Ancestral World ? Whence can any true knowledge be derived 
of these Conceptions save through a diligent comparative study 
of the Expressions of these Conceptions in Customs, in Sayings, 
and in Poesies ? And can anything, therefore, be more utterly 
confusing, more unscientific in method, and more false in vesult 
than not only grouping * Superstitious Beliefs ' with * Superstitious 
Practice,* but co-ordinating this chaotic group with * Traditional 
Customs,' etc. ? No doubt what has hitherto been implicitly the 
method of the student of Folk-lore is thus made explicit But 
surely it should be thus made explicit only to. be abandoned? 
For thus ranking 'Superstitious Beliefs' with 'Traditional 
Customs,' etc., the Folk-lore collector has naturally set himself to 
collect * Superstitions ' by putting leading questions to, and other- 
wise unscientifically examining rustics and savages, instead of 
either informing himself, or leaving it to others to inform him, of 
these ' Superstitions ' in the only way in which true knowledge 
of them can be certainly obtained, namely, by the examination 
of those only genuine Records of Folk-conception? — the Customs, 
Sayings, and Poesies of the Folk themselves. This cardinal 
distinction, therefore, between the Conceptions of Folk-life and the 
Expressions of Folk-life, and hence between the Contents of Folk- 
lore and the Records of Folk-lore, will lead to these very practical 
results. In the first place, we shall look with much suspicion on 
all those statements as to * Superstitions ' which have not been 
gathered from a due examination and comparison of their only 
genuine Records.^ And secondly, it will be only from these 

^ I might give many instances of the unfortunate want of such suspicion in 
the statements accepted by Mr. Spencer, and even occasionally by Dr. Tylor. 

The Classification of Folk- Lore. 273 

— . — I 

genuine Records that we shall henceforth attempt to gain our 
knowledge of * Superstitions.'^ 

4. The first result, then, of our Psychological Analysis of Folk-life 
is to separate wholly ' Superstitious Beliefs ' from those Expressions 
and Records of ' Superstitious Beliefs,* or * Superstitious Practices,' 
with which it seems to be proposed so unscientifically to co- 
ordinate them in the official Handbook, ' Superstitious Beliefs ' 
are at once classed apart, and distinguished as Folk-concep- 
tions of the External World, of Social Relations, and of the 
Ancestral World ; or in other words, as Cosmical, Social, and 
Ancestral Folk-conceptions. And now to proceed to the criti- 
cism of the three other groups proposed by the Director of the 
Folk-lore Society, and to the statement of those derived from 
our Psychological Analysis. These three groups are (i) Tradi- 
tional Customs ; (2) Traditional Narratives ; and (3) Folk-speech. 
But how, or why are Folk-customs and Folk-narratives to be 
qualified as 'Traditional,' but not Folk-speech? Are not all 
three equally * traditional ' ? And is not the fact of its being pre- 
served traditionally, rather than scripturally, the very characteristic 
that distinguishes Folk-lore from Culture- lore, which only came into 
existence when men began to write ? These groups, however, are 
neither derived from, nor connected with, any sort of principle ; and 
this partial accordance with the classes deduced from Psychologi- 
cal Analysis is entirely accidental. Such Analysis, leading us first 
to distinguish between Conceptions, and Expressions of Concep- 
tions, showed us next that there were three primary Modes of 
Human Expression — Action, Speech, and Fiction ; and applying 
these results to the classification of what are at once the Expres- 
- sions of Folk-life, and the Records of Folk-lore, we get these 
three great Classes — Customs, Sayings, and Poesies. 

Objection was taken in the Folk-lore Journal^ to the term Say- 
ings^ as the name of a Class of Folk-lore Records, on the ground, 
that a Saying usually means a ' form of words ;' and it was even 
said that there 'is a very unscientific confusion' in using this 
term to include both formulas and sayings that are not formulas. 

^ This only sound method is illustrated in the lately published book of Dr 
H ARLEZ ; La Religion NcUionaU des Tartares Orientaux Manchous et Mongols^ 
tomparie d. la Religion des Anciens Chinois, 

^ Vol. iv., part ii. (April to June, 1886), p. 161. 


274 The Science of Folk- Lore. 

To this I answer first, with all due respect, that it is not the fi 
that a Saying, with the best writers, means only a formula. ' C 
tainly his noble sayings can I not amend,' says Chaucer. A 
' It was a common saying with him,' says Sir Thomas More, ' tf 
such altercations were for a logician, and not for a philosophy 
But, secondly, of the three subclasses into which, as will presen 
appear, Sayings are, in my Classification, divided, the vast major 
are, I believe, ' forms of words ;' and hence, in the vast majoiity 
cases, the term Sayings would be used in what is affirmed — thoug 
as I have shown, incorrectly affirmed — to be its usual sense. 

Similarly, objection was taken to my use of the ter 
Poesy to include Stories, Songs, and Sagas (or rather. Lays ai 
Legends, Songs and Stories, Ballads and Sagas), on the groui 
that ' it would take ordinary minds some time to grasp the idi 
that they should place prose matter under the head of poetry, i 
" poesy," a word which suggests a motto for a ring, rather thi 
anything more important'^ This last remark would seem to ind 
cate that my critic of the Folk-lore Society Council has in soil 
way confused 'poesy' and 'posy.' But passing from this, if 
does, as affirmed, 'take ordinary minds some time to grasp' tn 
use of the teim poesy, one has only to turn to Richardson's Di< 
tionary to find that it is in perfect accord with the usage of th 
best modern writers, who all consider making, creating, inventin 
— ie., invention, not verse-making — as the characteristic of poetry 
' Poesy,' says Ben Jonson, ' is the poet's skill or craft of making 
the very fiction itself, the reason or form of the work.' *Poes 
feigns,' says Bacon in a long passage w^ich I need not here quote 
'The names given to poets both Greek and Latin,* says Si 
William Temple, 'express the same opinion of them in thos 
nations ; the Greek signifying makers or creators, such as rais 
admirable frames and fabrics out of nothing, which strike witl 
wonder and with pleasure the eyes and imaginations of those wh 
behold them.' Hence if I use the less common, though perfect! 
good, English word poesy, instead of poetry, it is just becaus 
poetry is vulgarly, though incorrectly, held to mean veise-making 
and because I hope that the more general, and at the same tim' 
more conect, meaning may be mOTe easily attached to the les 
' Fctk-lorejeumal, Jane, iS&S, p. i6i. 

Tlte Classification of Folk- Lore. 275 

usual word. And thus using the tenn, I submit that Folk-potiUi 
is a very much better Class-name for 'Folk Tales, Hero Tales, 
Place legends. Ballads and Songs,' than Traditional Narratives, 
the term selected by the Director of the Folk-lore Society. 

5. But now, the question arises, What principle sh^Lbc our 
guide in our Subclassifications, our Classifications of Customs, of 
Sayings, and of Poesies? As the Director of the Folk-tore 
Society dispenses with principle, and is guided only by super- 
ficial notions of convenience, in forming, naming, and arrang- 
ing the 'four radical groups' into which he considers that 'the 
body of survivals called Folk-lore may be divided,' h fortiori 
he dispenses with principle in forming, naming, and arranging the 
various ' subgroups ' included in each of the ' radical groups.' 
In any truly scientific Classification, however, even subgroups 
must be formed and arranged in accordance with some more or 
less clearly recognisable principle ; though, of course, the more 
special the phenomena, the more difficult will it be to distinguish 
them by general characteristics. Now, the principle which led us 
to distinguish the Expressions of Folk-life and Records of Folk-lore 
as Customs, Sayings, and Poesies was, as has just been noted, the 
fact that Action, Speech, and Fiction are the three Modes of 
Human Expression. But on what principle are Customs, Sayings, 
and Poesies to be subclassified ? Seeing that they are all expres- 
sions of Folk-conceptions, our best guide in subclassifying them 
will surely be consideration of the Folk-conceptions to which they 
more especially give expression. Folk- conceptions, as we have 
seen, are of three kinds — Conceptions of the External World, of 
Social Relations, and of the Ancestral World, Our Subclassili- 
cation, therefore, of Customs, of Sayings, and of Poesies, will be 
determined by considering whether they inform us more especially 
with respect to Cosmical, or to Social, or to Historical Concep- 
tions. And thus subclassifying Folk-customs I would name and 
arrange them, as (r) Ctremonits, (1) Usages, and (3) Festivals — 
Ceremonies generally informing us more especially with respect to 
Cosmical Conceptions ; Usages, with respect to Social Relations ; 
and Festivals with respect to Historical Conceptions. 

Similarly Folk-sayings and Folk-poesies may be subclassified. But 
with respect to each some special remarks are necessary before 
18— a 

276 TIu Sciefice of Folk-Lore. 

stating the Subclassification proposed. As to Folk-sayings^ they 
are divided by the Director of the Folk-lore Society into * Jingles^ 
Nursery Rhymes, Proverbs, Nicknames, Place Rh3rmes, eic^ in 
which Utc^ may be included, I suppose, Folk-etymologies. But 
^ evidently in making such Divisions one has regard only to the 
form of the Folk-saying. Deducing, however, the Subclassification 
of Folk-sayings — ^like the Subclassifications of Folk-customs and of 
Folk-poesies — from an Analysis of the Conceptions of Folk-life, I 
would distinguish Folk-sayings according to their contents. And 
the Conceptions of Folk-life being distinguished as Conceptions 
of an External World, of Social Relations, and of an Ancestral 
World, I would subclassify Folk-sayings in accordance with the 
character of the Conceptions predominantly found in them. 
Hence, each Subclass may include examples of all the above-named 
forms of Folk-sayings, and particularly of Proverbs, that form of 
Folk-saying of which the contents are the most varied. I have, 
therefore, had some difficulty in selecting words denoting, or that 
might be made to denote, the proposed new General Divisions of 
Folk-sayings. But perhaps the best words afforded by the English 
language may be— (i) for Sayings illustrative of Cosmical Con- 
ceptions, Spells;^ (2) for Sayings illustrative of Social Rela- 
tions, Saws;^ and (3) for Sayings illustrative of Historical Con- 
ceptions, Readcs,^ 

And now as to Folk-poesies. Before stating a similar Subclassifi- 
cation, I must point out that Folk-poesies exist in three forms. 
Folk-poesy, as a Class of Folk-lore Records, is derived from that 
Psychological Analysis of Folk- life, which, as I have just repeated, 
distinguishes three Modes of Human Expression — Action, Speech, 
and Fiction. But the Fiction which we find in Folk-poesy is ex- 
pressed in three forms — Poem, Music, and Tale — to name them 
in their probable historical order of development. All these three, 
therefore, must be comprehended in each of those Cosmical, 

' " Gospel '* is either God-spell ox good spell ; the latter word meaning speech, 
story, discourse ; whence the secondary meaning of charm or incantation. 
' Severe to censure, earnest to advise. 
And with old Saws the present age chastise. 

Francis, Art of Poetry (Horace). 
' This Reade is rife that oftentime 
Great climbers fall unsoft. 

Spenser, Shep. Cai.^July. 

The Classification of Folk-Lore. 277 

Social, and Historical Divisions of Folk-poesy derived from our 
Analysis of Folk-conceptions, and detennined by consideration 
of the predominant character of the information afforded But 
difficult as it was to get simple names for our new General Divisions 
of Folk-sayings, it is, I fear, impossible to get simple names for our 
new General Divisions of Folk-poesies comprehending, as we have 
seen that they must comprehend, the expressions of Fiction in all 
its three forms. Compound names for these new General Divisions 
of Folk-poesy we shall thus be forced to adopt Perhaps the best 
terms by which to indicate the three Subclasses of Folk-poems may 
be Lays, Songs, and Ballads. The three Divisions of Folk-music 
are certainly Metres, Melodies, and Choruses. And the three 
Subclasses of Folk-tales we may name Legends, Stories, and Sagas. 
And now, to the three (^neral Divisions of Folk-poesy deter- 
mined by consideration of the Conceptions, or Relations, pre- 
dominantly expressed, and each of them comprehending three 
corresponding forms of Poem, of Music, and of Tale, we may 
give the compound names — (i) Lays and Legends ; (2) Songs and 
Stories ; and (3) Ballads and Sagas — illustrative, the first, chiefly 
of Cosmical Conceptions ; the second, chiefly of Social Relations ; 
and the third, chiefly of Historical Conceptions. 

6. But even in the above Subclasses of Folk-customs, of Folk-say- 
ings, and of Folk-poesies we have still groups each of which includes 
an immense number of phenomena, and which, therefore, demand 
still further classification. On what principle may we hope to 
arrange, at once most naturally and most instn^ctively, the pheno- 
mena of these Subclasses ? These Subclasses, as we have just 
seen, may be distinguished as (L) Ceremonies, (H.) Spells, and 
(HL) Lays and Legends, illustrative of Cosmical Conceptions; as 
(I.) Usages, (n.) Saws, and (HL) Songs and Stories, illustrative 
of Social Relations; and as (L) Festivals, (H.) Reades, and 
(IIL) Ballads and Sagas, illustrative of Historical Conceptions. 
Will not, then, the further Subclassificatioh that will be at 
once the most natural and the most instructive be derived 
from an analysis of these Conceptions respectively? Com- 
pletely to work out such an Analysis would be to elaborate a 
complete Psychology of Folk-life, a task far beyond either my 
present purpose, or present ability. But at least the first, and 

278 The Science of Folk-Lore. 

most general results of such an Analysis may be stated, and these 
would appear to be as follows : Folk-conceptions of the External 
World may be distinguished as Conceptions of (L) Fetiches, ue^ 
Things conceived as not only sympathizing with, and influencing 
Man, but as variously transformable ; of (ii.) Totems, £^., Animals 
conceived as having not only human sympathies with, and powers 
like those of Man, but as being akin to Man ; andof (iiL) Demons, 
/.^, Beings conceived as possessed of such magical, rather than 
supernatural, powers, as both Animals and Things are conceived 
as possessed of, and ranging from Wizards to Deities. Folk-con- 
ceptions of the Social World may be distinguished as Conceptions 
of (i.) Sexual ; of (ii.) Domestic ; and of (iii.) Communal relations, 
actual or forbidden. And Folk-conceptions of the Ancestral World 
may be distinguished as Conceptions of (L) the Origin of Things 
and of Men, and of Events previous to the formation of the Tribe ; 
of (ii.) the adventures, tasks, and achievements of Heroes; and of 
(iii.) the Life of the Tribe, its former habitats and experiences, wars 
and migrations, subjections and aspirations. These, therefore, are 
the Conceptions, by having regard to the predominance of which 
respectively, we shall be enabled further to classify Ceremonies, 
Usages, and Festivals; Spells, Saws, and Reades; Lays and 
Legends, Songs and Stories, and Ballads and Sagas. 

Such a further Subclassification I can here illustrate only by its 
application to the hitherto unsolved ^ problems of the Classification 
of Folk-poesy — Folk-poems, and Folk-tales. As has been seen, 
I would give somewhat new meanings to the terms (i) Legends 
{Mdrchen)\ (2) Stories (Schwdnke)) and (3) Sagas {Heldensage), 
Lays I would define as Folk-poems, and Legends as Folk-tales, 
chiefly illustrative of Cosmical Conceptions ; Songs I would define 
as Folk-poems, and Stories as Folk- tales, chiefly illustrative of Social 
Relations ; and Ballads I would define as Folk-poems, and Sagas 
as Folk-tales, chiefly illustrative of Historical Conceptions, though 
also of the conceptions characteristic of the two other classes of 
Folk-poems and Folk- tales respectively, which Ballads and Sagas 

^ See Von Hahn, Griechische uttd Albanische Mdrchen ; Ralston, Notes 
on Folk-tales, Folk-lore Record^ vol. i. ; Baring-Gguld, Northern Folk-lore — 
Appetidix ; Nutt, Notes on the Folk and Hero Tales of the Celts; Celtic 
Magazine, Sept. 1887 ; and Macbain, Popular Tales, Trans, Gaelic Soc^ 
Inverness, vol. xiii. : and compare the arrangements of the various Collections 
of Folk -poems hitherto published. 

The Classification of Folk-Lore. 279 

generally include, or of which they are made up. Now, for the 
further classification of each of these Subclasses of Folk-poems and 
Folk-tales I would refer to the Analysis just given of the Concep- 
tions the predominance of which determines each of these Classes 
respectively. Lays and Legends would thus be divided into 
(i) Fetich-lays and -legends; (2) Totem-lays and -legends; and 
(3) Demon-lays and -legends. Songs and Stories would be divided 
into (i) Love-songs and -jstories; (2) Family-songs and -stories ; and 
(3) Commune-songs and -stories. And Ballads and Sagas would 
be divided into (i) Origin-ballads and -sagas ; (2) Hero-ballads 
and -sagas ; and (3) Tribe-ballads and -sagas.^ 

Such, then, are the main Divisions and Subdivisions of that 
psychologically-founded Classification of Folk-lore which I ven- 
ture to submit as making, at length, of the study of Folk-lore a 
Science, or body of systematized and co-ordinated Knowledges. 
In its Subdivisions, as in its Divisions, the same psychological 
principles have been our guide, and, with respect to Folk-poesy 
particularly, these principles naturally lead us to give prominence 
to permanent incidents, rather than to temporary framework. 
For the sake of clearness, it may be desirable to present the 
categories of this Classification in the following tabular form. 
But as I have found myself obliged to set forth this Classification 
in opposition to that of the Director of the Folk-lore Society, I 
must first exhibit his Classification as stated by himself : 


I. Superstitious Belief ^Practice: 
(a.) Nature Spirits ; 
\b!) Tree Spirits; 
\c,) Animal Spirits; 

d.) Goblindom; 

e,) Witchcraft; 
(/) Astrology ; 
{£,) Minor Superstitions. 

2. Traditional Customs: 
(a.) Local Customs ; 
{b.) Games; 
(c.) Festival Customs ; 
{d.) Ceremonial Customs. 

^ In the foregoing Translations the Subclass of Fetich-lays is represented in 
the Idyllic Section of the Mythological Folk-poems. From that Section, how- 
ever, will, in a future edition, be separated those lays which, with many oUiers, 

3. Traditional Narratives : 
(a.) Folk Tales; 
{b.) Hero Tales ; 
(c.) Place Legends and Tradi- 
tions ; 
{d,) Ballads and Songs. 

4. Folk-Speech: 
(a) Jingles, Nursery Rhymes, 

Riddles, etc. ; 
{b,) Proverbs; 
(c) Nicknames, Place Rhymes ; 

28o The Science of Folk- Lore. 


A. %\[Z (JTotuq^tixntd x)£ Jfolk-ii£e, atti (![ontent0 ^f ^tMkA^xt. 

I. Conceptions of the External World, or Cosmical Conceptions. 
Conceptions of (i.) Fetiches ; (ii.) Totems; and (iil) Demons. 

II. Conceptions of the Social World, or of Social Relations. 
(L) Sexual; (il) Domestic; and (iii.) Communal. 

III. Conceptions of the Ancestral World, or Historical Con- 
ceptions. Conceptions of (L) Origins; (ii.) Heroes; and (iii.) 

£. ^hie (Sxprjtd^iond x)£ jfolk-life, anlt $ec0rb0 tA Jfolk-lxrtt. 


I. Ceremonies, or Customs chiefly illustrative of Cosmical 
Conceptions (Fetiches, Totems, Demons). 

II. Usages, or Customs chiefly illustrative of Social Rela- 
tions (Sexual, Domestic, Communal). 

III. Festivals, or Customs chiefly illustrative of Historical 
Conceptions (Origins, Heroes, Tribe-histories). 


♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ , ♦ 


I. Spells, or Sayings chiefly illustrative of Cosmical Concep- 
tions (Fetiches, Totems, Demons). 

II. Saws, or Sayings chiefly illustrative of Social Relations 
(Sexual, Domestic, Communal). 

III. Reades, or Sayings chiefly illustrative of Historical Con- 
ceptions (Origins, Heroes, Tribe-histories). 


♦ ♦ ♦ * ♦ 


I. Lays and Legends, or Poesies chiefly illustrative of 
Cosmical Conceptions (Fetiches, Totems, Demons). 

II. Songs and Stories, or Poesies chiefly illustrative of Social 
Relations (Sexual, Domestic, Communal). 

III. Ballads and Sagas, or Poesies chiefly illustrative of 
Historical Conceptions (Origins, Heroes, Tribe-histories). 

will form the Subclass of Totem-lays, Most of the Christian Folk-poems will 
then, with others, be placed in the Subclass of Hero-ballads. The third Sub- 
class, which I have entitled *Charonic,* evidently corresponds to the more 
general Subclass of Demon-lays, The Subclasses of * Affectional Folk-songs ' 
— Erotic, Domestic, and Humouristic — will also be at once recognised as cor- 
responding to the Subclasses of Love-songs, Family-songs, and Commune- 
songs. And the ' Historical Folk-songs ' are properly but the third Subclass 
of such Folk-songs, namely. Tribe-ballads. 

The Classification of Folk- Lore. 281 



(Folk-poems and Folk-tales illustrative of Cosmical Conceptions,) 

Subclass (I.) Fetich-Lays and -Legends. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of Things of all kinds, as possessed of humanlike 
povrers and sympathies, and capable of every sort of transformation. 

Subclass (IL) Totem-Lays and -Legends. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of so-called ' Grateful ' Beasts ; of Marriages 
with Beasts, and births of Beast-children ; and of Wisdom-giving Fishes or 

Subclass (IIL) Demon-Lays and -Legends. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of Beings with Husks that can be thrown off, 
Ooaks of Darkness, Shoes of Swiftness, etc. ; of Monsters, and more or less 
' spiritual ' Beings ; and of After-death Existence. 


{Folk'Poems and Folk-tales illustrative of Social Relations,) 

Subclass (I.) Love-Songs and -Stories. 

Folk -poems and Folk-tales of Bride- winning ; of abducted or recovered 
Heroines ; and generally such as are of au erotic character. 

Subclass (II.) Family-Songs and -Stories. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of exposure of Children ; of ill-treated or outcast 
Children and their adventures ; of success of Youngest Brother ; of broken 
Taboo ; and of desertion either of Wife, or of Husband. 

Subclass (III.) Commune-Songs and -Stories. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of Trickery, of Theft, and of * Feigned Fools ' ; 
such as are of a humouristic character; and such also as inculcate moral 


{Folk-poems and Folk-tales illustrative of Historical Conceptions,) 

Subclass (I.) Origin-Ballads and -Sagas. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of Heaven and EUirth ; of Vengeances of the 
Gods; and of Corn-culture-, Wine-making-, and Metal-smelting-discoveries. 

Subclass (II.) Hero-Ballads and -Sagas. 

Folk-poems and Folk-tales of Heroic Adventures ; of ' Dispossessed 
Princes ; and of Tasks imposed and achieved. 

Subclass (III.) Tribe-Ballads and -Sagas. 

Folk-poems and Folk -tales of former habitats, wars, and migrations ; of 
' Expulsions and Returns * ; and such as are of a tribally historic character. 

282 The Science of Folk- Lore. 

8. Thus Folk-lore has been classified, and it has been made 
possible to constitute a science of Folk-lore. But, as I have above 
remarked, Sciences are not merely systematized, but co-ordinated 
Knowledges. And it is necessary, therefore, to complete our view 
of the Science of Folk-lore by determining its place in the S3rstem 
of the Historical Sciences. Now a scientific study of Man's BListory 
— a study of it aiming at discovery of its laws — will, I think, lead 
to the recognition of three diflferent orders of Historical Sciences — 
Sciences of Man's Physical Evolution, or the General Science of 
Anthropology ; Sciences of Man's Mental Development, or the 
General Science of Noology; and Sciences of Man's Social 
Progress, or the General Science of Sociology, if that barbarous 
term should still be preferred to such a more classical term as 
Koenoniology (%mmia av^^du^/va, Human Society). The Historical 
Sciences of Physical Evolution are the Sciences of the History of 
Aptitude — the history of the Evolution of (i) Races, of (2) 
Languages, and of (3) Inventions. The Historical Sciences of 
Mental Development are the Sciences of the history of Culture — 
the history of the Development of (i) Philosophy; of (2) Ideals; 
and of (3) Jurisprudence. And the Historical Sciences of Social 
Progress are the Sciences of the history of Society — the history of 
the progress of (i) Economic Organization ; of (2) Religions (Folk- 
beliefs as distinguished from Culture-ideals) ; and of (3) Pohtical 

What is the nature of the Science of Folk-lore, and its place in 
such a System of Historical Sciences ? The Science of Folk- 
lore I have defined as the Systematized and Co-ordinated Know- 
ledge of the lore of the Folk. And as the chief materials for 
the study of the Historical Science of the Development of Ideals 
are to be found in what may comprehensively be called ' Culture- 
lore,' the chief materials for the study of the Historical Science 
of the Progress of Religions are to be found in what may 
be comprehensively named Folk-lore. The Science of Folk- 
lore, therefore, is a Descriptive or Classificatory Science — a Science 
not of the Causes, but merely of the Description, and what that 
implies when it is of a scientific character, the Arrangement of 
Phenomena. According as we retain for the Causal Science of 
Social Progress the barbarous term Sociology, or adopt for it, as 

The Classification of Folk-Lore. 283 

above suggested, the more classical term Koenoniology, its cor- 
relative Descriptive Science will be called Sociography, or 
Koenoniography ; and the Science of Folk-lore, as a department 
of this general Descriptive Science, might be termed Koenonoso- 
graphy (xm6i y¥Ojffig)^ 

9. To illustrate the place thus assigned to the Science of Folk-lore 
a few words may be said on the relations of Folk-lore to Savage- 
lore, and of both to the Classic Mythologies. Speaking generally, 
the conceptions that are expressed in the records both of Savage- 
lore and of Folk-lore are the conceptions of the lower Paganism. 
But the conceptions of the lower Paganism are simply the concep- 
tions antecedent to, or unaffected by, the Culture-religions, and 
especially by those of Buddhism, Christianism, and Islamism. 
The term Folk, however, implies the co-existence of Cultured 
Classes. Hence the Paganism of Folk-conceptions is nowhere 
absolutely, is everywhere only relatively, unaffected by Culture. 
And hence the relation of Folk-conceptions to Savage-concep- 
tions is the relation of Culture-affected, to Culture-unaffected 
Paganism. But the New Moral Religions above-named are 
only the later Religions of Culture. All the Religions of the 
White Races, the initiators of Civilization, have been relatively 
Religions of Culture. They have been Religions of Deities, 
properly so-called, as distinguished from the Demons, or Fetiches, 
of the Coloured and Black Races. Not only, however, have 
the Religions of the White Races, or at least of their Ruling 
Classes, contained higher ideas, but — because of the culture of 
these Ruling Classes — not only their own distinctive ideas, but all 
other ideas worked in to these Religions, were expressed in higher 
forms. And thus what we ordinarily call Mythology is simply 
the body of religious fictions systematized and poetized by men 
of Culture. 

Consider, for instance, those conceptions of the External World 
in which it is imagined to contain a Region inhabited by Ghosts 
of the Dead. In Folk- as in Savage-conceptions, this Region is 

^ Accunitely, this shonld be spelt Koenognosography. But for the sake of 
euphony, ^ may be dropped. For it is a letter which would certainly be pro- 
nounced hard by Englishmen, but is not so pronounced by Greeks, and is 
indMd commonly either a guttural or an aspirate. 

284 The Science of Folk-Lore. 

pictured in a yague, simple, and incoherent way, as the reader 
will have seen in the Charonic division of the foregoing 'Mytho- 
logical or Cosmical Folk-poems. In the Religions of Culture, 
those vague, simple, and incoherent conceptions of the Ghost- 
World are elaborated into such splendid myths as we find in the 
Chaldean Descent of Istar^ the Egyptian Book of the Dead^ and 
the Christian Divina Commedia — priestly and poetical elaborations 
of terrorizing imagery, for inculcation of belief in which Ruling 
Races and Ruling Classes have ever carefully provided as the best 
of all means for securing the permanence of their power. 

Thus, partly through the poesy, partly through the policy, of the 
Cultured Classes, what has been Folk-lore has become Mythology. 
To the authors, for instance, of the Homeric and Hesiodic Poems 
the greater part of Classical Greek Mythology was Folk-lore. To 
us who study these poems as redacted respectively — if we accept 
the conclusions of Fick^ — about the Sixth Century b.c, by 
Kynaithos of Chios, and Kerkops of Miletos, it is Culture-lore. 
Only the /ipo/ X070/, the 'sacred tales,' which men of Culture, like 
Herodotos and Pausanias, decline to report, would give us ancient 
Greek Folk-lore in a genuine form. And hence, the relation of 
what we have discovered to be primitive Savage-conceptions and 
still surviving Folk-conceptions to Mythology is the relation 
thereto of examples of those lower conceptions — or conceptions 
of the lower and conquered Races — which systematizing and 
poetizing men of Culture worked up with the higher conceptions 
of their own higher and conquering Races. 


The Science of Folk-lore having been defined as a Descriptive 
or Classificatory Science, its great problem, after the collection, 
arrangement, and description of the phenomena with which it 
deals — the Customs, Sayings, and Poesies, which are the Expres- 
sions of Folk-life — is their interpretation — or, in other words, the 
statement of the Conceptions to which these Customs, Sayings, 
and Poesies give expression. With problems of causes — such 
problems, for instance, as that discussed in the third section of 
OMT Historical Introductiotiy the Science of Folk-lore has nothing to 
' See Die Homeriiche IUcls^ and Haiods GedickU. 

The Classification of Folk-Lore. 285 

do — and these it must leave to those Causal Historical Sciences, 
to which, like the Descriptive Historical Sciences generally, it is 
merely auxiliary. Still, a few words may be added in conclusion 
with reference to those problems, the solution of which the Science 
of Folk-lore has to make possible, rather than itself to undertake. 
Three of the most important of these problems may be thus 
stated: (i) What is the nature and origin of Fetichism? (2) 
What are the causes of the extraordinary identities of Jolk-tales all 
over the world ? and (3) How did the great Mythologies of Cul- 
ture originate, and hence, what is the true method of their inter- 
pretation? I shall here only indicate certain hitherto uncon- 
sidered sets of facts which will be found, I believe, to have the 
most important bearing on the solution of these problems. 

2. The facts to which I allude are those which appear to 
establish a relation between Races and Civilizations, and Races and 
Religions ; as also those facts which seem to demand the recogni- 
tion of a third White Race, the initiators of the Pre-Aryan and Pre- 
Semitic Civilizations. Fifteen years ago now I pointed out, in my 
New Philosophy of History^ that the results of a vast number of recent 
researches led me to the conclusion, not only that the Sixth Cen- 
tury B.c^ was a great and similar revolutionary Epoch in each and 
all of the countries of Civilization ; but that all the origins of 
Modem Civilization are to be traced to that Epoch ; and that, 
as one of its great events was the first Aryan World-empire, 
the whole Age since then has been characteristically an Age 
of Aryan domination. Such a fact was not likely to stand 
alone, and naturally led to the supposition that other similar 
Epochs and Ages would be discovered, and this anticipation 
appears to have been verified. More recent researches, as I shall 
elsewhere show, appear to lead to the conclusion that, in the Third 
Millennium ac. there was a similar Epoch of general revolutionary 
change, and that the Age between that Epoch and the Epoch of the 
Sixth Century ac. was as characteristically marked by Semitic, as 
the Age succeeding that latter epoch has been by Aryan, domina- 
tion. And I believe that I shall further be able to show, by the 
simple method of combining the results of a vast number of 
researches, that the Age of the old Egyptian and old Chaldean 

^ More accurately, the lOO years between 550 and 450, and which may, 
therefore, be equally well referred to as the Epoch of the Fifth Century B.c 

286 Tlie Science of Folk-Lore. 

Empires was similarly marked by the domination of a non-Semitic 
and non- Aryan, but yet White Race; that the foundation of these 
old Egyptian and Chaldean Civilizations may be traced back to 
about the same Epoch, the Sixth Millennium ac ; and that the 
White Race — the Archaian White Race, as I have called it — 
which initiated these great Civilizations overspread the world, and 
has everywhere left traces of its presence, not only in physical 
features, but in all the records of Folk-lore. 

Not only, however, can, as I believe, such relations be estab- 
lished between the White Species or Variety of Mankind, and 
Civilization, and between different Races of that White Variety and 
different Civilizations; but? between the White Variety and Deitistic 
Religions, or Religions of Greater Gods ; and between the different 
Races of that White Variety and different Conceptions of these 
Greater Gods. And further, I think it can be shown that the 
Coloured and Black Races have as distinctively different Religions 
as the White Races, and Religions as much lower in intellectual 
and moral Conceptions as might be expected in Races who have 
never come in contact with the White Races, save to be conquered 
and enslaved. The establishment of such facts as these cannot 
but be of the utmost importance with reference to the solution of 
the problems above-stated, and with reference especially to that of 
the interpretation of the Classic Mythologies of the White Races. 

According to the now current theory which has received a 
sort of official imprimatur in the Encyclopedia Britannica^ the 
savageries in the classic Mythologies are attributed to the 
actual savagery of the conceptions of our Aryan Ancestors. 
But however the fact may have been, I am not aware that 
there is any sort of proof that any of the White Races, nor 
certainly is there any proof that White Races, speaking even the 
earliest forms of Aryan languages, ever passed through such a 
mental stage as that which, so far as we know, has always been 
characteristic of the Coloured and Black Races. On the contrary, 
a truer interpretation of the facts of History appears to show that 
no Race has ever developed beyond a certain stage, and that 
every new stage of progress has been due to the dominance of a 
new and more highly developed Race. Professor de Lacouperie 
appears to have shown that the Languages of different Races 

The Problems presented by Folk-Lore, 287 

have diflferent word-orders, and that the intermixture of different 
conquered or conquering Races may be traced in the changes 
effected in a primitive word-order.* And similarly, we should, I 
think, see, in the Savageries of the Classic Mythologies, survivals, 
not of former mental conditions of the White Races, but of the 
mental conditions of the Coloured and Black Races conquered by 
the Whites, and whose Religions as well as their Langliages reacted 
on and modified the Religions and Languages of their conquerors. 
3. This theory, however, of Higher and Lower, or, as I should 
prefer to say, of functionally different Races, is, no doubt, in 
diametrical opposition to current religious and political notions. 
Mr. Buckle's theory of the equality of all men, both racially and 
individually, and of the causes of difference being merely external 
circumstances, is probably still, as it was when he gave dogmatic 
expression to it, the current opinioa It was a theory character- 
istic of a typical Liberal and Deist But it was a theory which I 
strongly opposed in my discussions with him ; and I venture to 
think that scientific research has, since then, tended in various 
directions to the establishment of a theory of the Inequality of 
Human, no less than of other Animal, Races, as one of the funda- 
mental elements of a general scientific theory of Man's History. 
Yet there is no point, perhaps — save the connected theory of 
Epochs — in which the New Philosophy of History will come into 
more direct opposition to current religious and political notions 
than in its Theory of Races. For an hypothesis of Equality — 
equality of Races, equality of Individuals, and equality of Sexes — 
is the implicit or explicit postulate both of Christianism, and of 
Individualism. But this hypothesis facts utterly refute ; and to 
its corollary. Despotism, the most powerful social forces are 
opposed. There will certainly, therefore, be substituted for the 
current, a new Racial Theory, a Theory of Difference, yet of 
Functional Difference; hence a theory of the dependence of Rights 
and Duties, not on abstract Principles, but on concrete Capacities; 
and hence a theory, not of Equality, but of Co-equality. And 
such a theory will be the anthropological basis of that new con- 
ception of the State, of which the ideal is, not enforced, but free, 

* Sec De Lacouperie, The Lartf^f^es of China before the Chinese ; and 
The Ideology of Language^ and its Relation to History, Tnc latter work, still un- 
published, I have as yet had the advantage of perusing only in the proof-sheets. 

288 The Science of Folk-Lore. 

Co-operation — that new conception of the State which is eqaallj 
opposed to both the political factions of Individualism — Liberalism 
and Conservatism — that new conception of the State which it is 
the aim of that theory of Polity which is founded on the Laws of 
Economic Progress — which it is the aim, in a word, of scientific 
Socialism — to develop, and to apply to the solution of present 
Social Problems. 



Aravandinos. — SvXXoyi) BrjfAotSdv HtrcifXtfTiffc^v ^ffftarov, l8So. 
Bbnoit. — Voyage tnierpris dans VArcfUpel Crec en 1847. — Archives des 

Bent. — Tlie Cyclades ; or^ Life among the Insular Greeks, 1S85. 
Black IE. — Hora Hellenica. 1874. 
Blanch ARD. — Poimts patriotiques de Valaorites, 18S3. 
BOTTICHER. — Baumkuttus der Hellenen, 1856. 

ChassioTIS. — rvXXoyj) rwv Kardi ri(v 'Htre^pov BtfAorucutv ifffidrov, 1886. 
CONZE. — /^eise aufden Inseln des Thrakischen Meeres, 1865. 
Xpovoypa^ia riig 'Urrtipov, 1 856. 

Drosinus.— Z^W/iVA/ Briefe—Land und Leute in Nord-Euboa, 1884; 
EVLAMPIOS. — 'O kiiapavTOQ, 1 843. 
Fauribl. — Chants populaires de la Grice modeme, 1824. 
FirmenICH. — Tpayov^ta Pw/iaiVca. 1 867. 
Gbldart. — Folk- Lore of Modem Greece. 1884. 

Glbnnib. — Samothrace and its Gods^ Contemporary Review, May, 1882. 
Hahn. — Albanesische Studien, 1854. — Griechische und Albanische 

Mdrchen, 1864. — NeocXXi/vtcd Uapafi{f$ia. 1 879. 
Heuzey.— Z/ Mont Olympe, i86a 
Iatridos. — £vXXo7^ SrifiOTuedv qLtrfidrtop, 1 859. 
Ikbn Evnomia. — Vols. I. and II. 
Kind.— Tpayov^ui rrji viae. 'EXXi^of. 1833. — Anthologie, 1 844. — 

Mvi^ft6<nvov, 1849. 
Lbgrand. — Chansons populaires grecques. 1876. — Recueil de Po^mes 

historiques, 1877. — Recueil de Contes populaires Grecs. 1881. 
LblekOS. — A€ftOTiKr^ *AvOo\oyia, 1 868. 
Macpherson. — Poetfy of Modem Greece, 1884. 
Manasski DOS. —AuiXf croc Atvov, 'I/iCpov, Kal TtvUov. ITourtXi} Shi iC 

Alyov Kai lfi€pa. 

290 Bibliography of Greek Folk-Lore. 

Mannhardt. — Wold- und Feld'kulte, 1875-77, 

Manousos.— TfkiyoiJ^ia iOvfc^, k. r. X. 1 850. 

Marcellus. — Chants du PeupU en Grice, 1851. 

Mezi^res. — Pelion et Ossa» Archives des Missions^ 

OiKONOMIDES. — TpayovSia rov *0\vfiwov, 1881. 

Oppenheim. — Vbihs und Freiheitslieder, 1 842. 

Pagounos. — 'Htr€ipwro:»| ^ioKvctoq, 

Pandora^ *E^Bfi€pic Ttjs 'EXXa^oc* 

PanhelUnic AnnuaL 

VKSHI.Y.— Travels in Crete. 1837. 

Passow. — Poptdaria Carmina Gracia Recentioris. 1 86a 

Pamassos, NcocXXcviicd dvaXiKra, 1870-71. 

Pio. — Conies populodres Grecs publUs daprh les Afanuscrits du Dr,J, G, 

de Hahn. 1879. 
^CkoKoyucoQ ffvvUitjfioc. 1849. 
Pobler. — 'StoeWrii'iKi) "MvOoXoyia, 
POLITES. — T\otr(To\oyiici) trvfi^oXri, 

Ross. — Peisen aufden Gritch, Inseln des Aegaeischen Mures, 1840. 
Sanders. — Das VolksUhen der Neugriechen, 1844. 
ScHAUB. — Poimes grecs modemes, 1844. 
Schmidt. — Das Volksleben der Neugriechen, 187 1. 
Sheridan. — The Songs of Greece, 1826. 
Stamatellos. — SvXXoyi) T&v ZiavTitw fivriftdtav Iv r^ yXwtrffa rov AiVKaSiov 

TepharIKI. — AiavorpdyovBa, 1868, 
Thiersch. — Das Volksleben der Neugriechen, 
Tommaseo. — Canti popolari. 1841. 
Tozer. — Highlands of Turkey. 1869. 

ValaORITES. — 'H jcvpd 4>po<TVVJ|. 1859. — ^\vr\\kho\nKL fofiara. 1861. 
Wachsmuth. — Hellenischer Alterthumskunde. 1826-30. 
Weber. — Beispiele der Volksetymologie im Neugriechischen, — Beitrdge zur 

Kunde der Indoger. Sprachen, B. II. 
Zambelios. — 'AfffAara dtifiOTUcd r^c 'EXXo^oc. 1852. 
ZanNETOS. — ^"H 'OfAtpucr^ ^pcusiQ. 1883.